Temperature ratings of sleeping bags. (EN 13537)

The most important parameter that determines the choice of sleeping bag is its temperature characteristics. Until recently sleeping bags
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had trade labels with a special temperature chart, compiled on the basis of the temperature tests conducted by the manufacturer on the young men who regularly and professionally using sleeping bags (usually the climbers and military personnel). While testing probadly used clothing appropriate to the temperature conditions of the test. In April 2002 The European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation, CEN) approved a new standard with the official name "EN 13537:2002 - Requirements for sleeping bags", which officially came into force on 1 January 2005. 27 April 2012 was designed its latest edition (standard EN 13537:2012), which covers the following countries members of the CEN:

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Spain, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic Of Cyprus, The Republic Of Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, Finland, France, Czech Republic, Croatia, Switzerland, Sweden, Estonia.

The emergence of the new standard was driven, ultimately, by the need to alleviate the plight of the buyer, allowing him to compare sleeping bags of different manufacturers on the basis of clearly defined, universal, and applicable everywhere in Europe in a pattern - for example, data on temperatures, which are intended for sleeping bags, are determined, according to the new norm, standard, independent of their manufacturer. The standard regulates not only the symbol temperature characteristics of sleeping bags at trade labels, but also indicate some other technical characteristics, such as weight (if weight sleeping bag should indicate its total weight without packaging bag, the weight value rounding to the "nearest" 50 grams), internal dimensions (width in the shoulders, in the knees and in the legs, length), thickness, and volume in a compressed (Packed in a compression bag). Standard EN 13537 standard provides for the carrying out of temperature tests sleeping bags not on living people and on a specially designed thermal manikin (thermal manikin), simulating not only the "average" man, but also the "average" woman (with a short description of the temperature test to EN 13537 is given in conclusion of this article).

● Sleeping bags, not be tested in accordance with EN 13537

One of the objectives of the development standard EN 13537 was possibly the most accurate reflection of the thermal perception of real people. That is why the definition of limit values of temperatures on the basis of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of different sleeping bags have preceded the creation of the so-called "predictive model" by using tests carried out on numerous human beings in the refrigerator.

Since such tests are not allowed for children for ethical reasons, standard EN 13537 is not subject to sleeping bags intended for babies and children. The new standard is not subject also army sleeping bags and sleeping bags, designed for use in extreme temperatures (the temperature "comfort zone" below -24o C). In these two cases, in real conditions, it is assumed the use of a special insulating mats or combinations of mats and special clothing; it is possible to sleep in full street clothes. Similar conditions for standard temperature test to EN 13537 is not modeled. Standard EN 13537 applies only to bags, designed for one person.

Despite the fact that the new standard has only recommendatory character, does not require manufacturers test their products on a mandatory basis, many small and medium-sized producers of sleeping bags, not without reason, considered themselves on the verge of bankruptcy and has publicly stated his protest in the media. Still – according to the calculations Mammut Sports Group AG (Switzerland), the test of the full range of sleeping bags produced an average producer (30 models designed for different operating conditions without considering the size of these models and modifications used in these models lightning) would cost at least 90.000 euros. Minimum, i.e. only the temperature, test the same model costs from 450 to 950 euros; full test (see below) - 1500 Euro; the cost of the test Protocol depending on the language – from 200 to 340 euros. In addition, additional funds are required new product labels and changes in product catalogs. The protest of the producers was pretty much "spur" the availability of cheap sleeping bags produced in Asia – as a consequence of the ratification of a new norm entailing large financial costs manufacturer reasonably expected to shake out high-quality sleeping bags produced relatively small batches, because the cost of the test of the full range of sleeping bags would not have done a big "hole" in the budget Asian "mass" producer. In addition, the new standard, as against the consumer of more "gentle" in the field of temperature data, inevitably translated the most part of sleeping-bags, previously classified in category trancesonic - this phenomenon has forced manufacturers to revise not only its range but also the prices. In this aspect, the new European standard EN 13537 inflicted the most "serious blow" to American manufacturers: if temperature data sleeping bags previously produced in Central Europe, Scandinavia and the UK, were on average 4-7 degrees below the temperature data calculated in accordance with EN 13537 for these bags, the temperature of sleeping bags produced in the USA, were, according to the standard EN 13537, on average 8-12 degrees above those values, which were determined on the basis of American standard ASTM F 1720, which also includes the thermal test performed on the manikin (ASTM = American Society for Testing and Materials (now ASTM International); ASTM F 1720 = Standard Test Method for Measuring Thermal Insulation of Sleeping Bags Using a Heated Manikin; the last revision was in 2011).

A big "plus" of the new standard is the ability to compare the temperature ratings of sleeping bags from different manufacturers, since testing of these bags is standard, i.e., vendor independent, method. A positive feature of the new standard will also "temperature correction for women" (see below), reflecting the fact that women begin to feel cold before, CHK#1077;m men. The new standard, however, ignores a number of factors that will be discussed in detail below (see in the section "the Pros and cons of the new standard"). The most important negative feature of the new standard may be as follows: after learning about temperature testing of sleeping bags according to the standard method, which gives sufficiently reliable estimates of the temperature characteristics of these sleeping bags, the user may lose sight of the recommendatory nature of the new standard, as well as the mandatory presence of the special symbol ("EN 13537", see below) on the labels tested on the new standard of sleeping bags, resulting in that the user may mistakenly expect reliable temperature data labels on absolutely all sleeping bags; this expectation can contribute to caused by misinterpretation or incorrect translation of information sheets statements such as "all sleeping bags
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now tested according to EN standard 13537" (quote), often found on the Internet. Advisory nature of the standard EN 13537, which literally means that your sleeping bag is testing only the producer who has the desire to test their products and money for the test, can be used for advertising purposes - for example, the phrase "of these firms, only firm X has passed the test" and "firm X sells sleeping bags in Europe - therefore it bags certified to EN standard 13537" will be nothing more than marketing ploys. The user should remember about the inevitable decline of the insulating properties of the filler sleeping bags in the course of their operation - for testing to EN standard 13537 manufacturers are supplied brand new, that is, has just left the production line, sleeping bags.

In the following description, we touch only indicate temperature characteristics of sleeping bags in accordance with European standard EN 13537. The standard provides for the 4 temperatures (T Max, T Comfort, T Limit and T Extreme), of which the last 3 must be specified on the product label sleeping bag; the first indicator (T Max) may be absent. In cases where you specify only one value (e.g., in catalogs), this indicator must be T Limit. On the product label sleeping bag, in addition to the temperature diagram, must contain the designation "EN 13537" (confirming the passing of the sleeping bag temperature test) or the logo "CE", confirming the passing of the sleeping bag the full test to EN 13537 standard (temperature test, plus the compliance of the materials from which made sleeping bag, special textile EN standards). The logo "CE" may be absent in connection with reference character EN 13537. Under temperature chart should be a text warning about the "nature" of the temperature zones (comfort zone, a transition zone, the risk zone). Each of the 4 temperature readings to either the "average" man or "average" woman.

Additional information on the labels of sleeping bags

The phrase "temperature tested to EN 13537" on the label means that the sleeping bag has passed the temperature test to EN 13537, but the materials that the sleeping bag does not necessarily meet European standards of textile; the phrase "temperature rating in accordance with EN 13537" means that the sleeping bag were not tested according to EN 13537, but the manufacturer did a test and the calculation of the temperature indicators on their own.

As an example decode the following temperature chart:

T Max

This value is not necessarily present on the label of a sleeping bag. Conditions: sleep wearing long functional underwear and socks.

The upper limit ambient air temperature (+24o C) at which the "average" user (male, 25 years, growth 173 cm, weight 70 kg) sleeping comfortably (without feeling cold and without significant sweating) in a calm, relaxed state (e.g., supine) for at least 8 hours. This temperature value is not relevant from the point of view of human security, because when the feeling of discomfort (heat, heavy sweating), the user is not forced to resort to any additional tools - it is enough just to open the zipper of the sleeping bag.

T Comfort

This value must be specified on the label of a sleeping bag. Conditions: the zipper sleeping bag is fully buttoned, the hood
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is on the head and tightened correctly, the sleeper is dressed in a long functional underwear and socks.

The lower border of the comfort temperature zone is at a given ambient temperatures (in our example +5onC) the "average" user (female, 25 years, growth 160 cm, weight 60 kg) sleeping comfortably (without feeling cold) in a calm, relaxed state (e.g., supine) for at least 8 hours. This temperature value can be conditionally referred to as the "area of women's comfort."

T Limit

This value must be specified on the label of a sleeping bag. Conditions: the zipper sleeping bag is fully buttoned, the hood
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is on the head and tightened correctly, the sleeper is dressed in a long functional underwear and socks.

The lower bound of the "transition" temperature zone is at a given ambient temperature (0oC) the "average" user (male, 25 years, growth 173 cm, weight 70 kg) is sleeping quite comfortably, taking the position that contribute to retention of heat in a sleeping bag (curled up) for at least 8 hours. This temperature value can be conventionally called the lower limit temperature or the men's comfort.

What makes T Limit value critical temperature?

The value of T Limit must be specified in the technical data of sleeping bag. This value can be considered the most important parameter to characterize the insulating properties of a sleeping bag; from all 4 temperature settings defined by the European standard EN 13537, this option has the greatest relevance for the security of the user. Not by chance in the thermal characteristics of sleeping bags in accordance with European standard EN 13537 it is this characteristic contains the word "limit" (the limit) - this means that when buying a sleeping bag from all 4 temperature characteristics of this bag should pay attention to this role, since it really reflects those "extreme" conditions in which the sleeping bag would still be able to guarantee a comfortable (warm) sleep; when the ambient temperature is below T Limit the dream of any user of the sleeping bag will somehow disturbed by a sensation of cold. In cases where technical data in a sleeping bag only have one temperature value (e.g., in catalogs), this value should be T Limit.

T Extreme

This value must be specified on the label of a sleeping bag. Conditions: the zipper sleeping bag is fully buttoned, the hood
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is on the head and tightened correctly, the sleeper is dressed in a long functional underwear and socks.

Risk zone or "zone of survival". Indicates the temperature limit at which provided protection from freezing, however, it is possible hypothermia (cooling the body), which can harm the health. When the ambient air temperature (-15oC) the "average" user (female, 25 years, growth 160 cm, weight 60 kg) is able to sleep, curled up within 6 hours; this sleep, however, can not be called "comfortable" - in this temperature zone should expect to see repeated revivals, induced by the feeling of cold.

The "average" user in any case should not be used T Extreme as the sole criterion, the employee's choice of a sleeping bag. The value T is Extreme should be considered always in combination with the value T Limit, realizing the temperature range Limit T<-->Extreme T as follows: this is the temperature range in which hibernate in varying degrees will feel cold almost always, and when it reaches the lower bound of this range (T-Extreme) not only his health but also his life, will be endangered.

ATTENTION:

THE TEMPERATURE VALUE IS INDICATED IN THE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE SLEEPING BAG PARAMETER T EXTREME,
CORRESPONDS TO THE USE OF THIS SLEEPING BAG MAN, WHO BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP

NOT TIRED
NOT HUNGRY
NOT WET
NOT SUPERCOOLED

THE PRESENCE IN A REAL CAMPING SITUATION, AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS
- FATIGUE, MALNUTRITION, WET CLOTHING, HYPOTHERMIA -

WILL BE A SERIOUS "AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCE OF" USE OF A SLEEPING BAG
AT TEMPERATURES CLOSE TO THE VALUE OF ITS PARAMETER T EXTREME.
IN THIS ASPECT, THE MOST DISADVANTAGED SHOULD BE THE COMBINATION
THE LAST TWO OF THE ABOVE 4 FACTORS!

T Extreme can be used as a guideline only trained, experienced athletes, for some reason (for example, weight reduction equipment) is deliberately forced to use sleeping bags, not really relevant to the expected conditions of a hike, but familiar with these conditions and know what additional measures can be taken to improve the thermal comfort of sleep; in any case, in these conditions particular attention is paid to the used Mat, thermal insulation characteristics which necessarily correspond to temperature conditions (see about the mats in another topic in this section of the site - "Travel mats"). In Internet travel forums, the author of this article has repeatedly come across the discussion of sleeping bags according to the principle "and this sleeping bag can withstand even minus so many degrees" - on closer examination are discussing sleeping bags were clear that it was only on the characteristics of the T Extreme. We can assume that in this case "frivolous" trade organization or have not deciphered the technical characteristics of their sleeping bags, or else have resisted the temptation to bring only one, and the lowest temperature value, i.e. the value that characterizes not a comfortable sleep, but rather a fight for survival.

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At what temperature data to navigate when buying?

The temperature data T Comfort and T Limit (yellow zone termediary) should be considered as essential guidelines when purchasing a sleeping bag, because they show what "can" sleeping bag average. Those who are in practice familiar old temperature data sleeping bags, are given the impression that sleeping bags are tested according to the new standard, steel in a comfortable temperature zone somewhat colder (in new thermodinamic higher temperatures, corresponding to the area). This is due to the fact that the comfort zone is defined in the new standard for the woman and not the man, as it were. Before the advent of the new standard had revealed that women get cold faster than men; when choosing a sleeping bag they should make a correction of approximately 5 degrees (i.e., if the "old" indicator comfort temperature of a sleeping bag was, for example, +5 degrees, the woman would feel in this sleeping bag "comfortable" at temperatures below +10 degrees). The new standard takes that into account and therefore focused in this case on merznuschemu faster, i.e. women. The need to introduce "temperature correction" was due to the fact that the previous tests of sleeping bags out dummies, and in young, healthy, and having good physical condition people, mostly mountaineers, sports instructors and the soldiers.

Attention: the temperature difference between T Limit T and Comfort corresponds to the difference in the perception of cold is a man and a woman; according to laboratory tests, this difference is several degrees (rounded taken as approximately 5 degrees). Analysis of the technical data of sleeping bags manufactured by well-known manufacturers (i.e., those manufacturers that are interested in conducting a thermal test of their products and really test their products in independent organizations) shows that the difference between the T Limit and T the Comfort of sleeping bags produced by these manufacturers, varies approximately in the range of from 3 to 8 degrees. Significantly greater variation in the values of temperature T Limit and T the Comfort of any sleeping bag can be a symptom indicating the falsification of temperature data by the manufacturer of this sleeping bag.

At temperatures as specified in the red zone termediary (T Max) by anyone, even inexperienced, one is guaranteed a normal sleep; when sweating, you can remove the hood, partially unzip the sleeping bag, use a sleeping bag as blankets or (in extreme cases) do not use a sleeping bag, sleeping only in functional underwear. Not accidentally T Max is, in accordance with EN 13537, the only temperature indicator, which may not be on thermodiamine.

Temperature data of the blue zone, or zone of risk (Extreme T) in any case should not be used as a guide when buying a sleeping bag, since at these temperatures about sleep in the normal sense of the word cannot be considered. Under these temperature conditions, the cold will be felt, whereby the risk of damage to health will be increased (hypothermia), especially in those cases where no additional warm clothing (in case of emergency, for example, "powder puff") and/or warm enough Mat. Use a sleeping bag at temperatures lower than T Extreme, may cause irreparable harm, or even lead to death.

VERIFICATION OF CONFORMITY SLEEPING BAG STANDARD EN 13537

Not excluding the possibility of using thermal labels with "EN 13537" on the sleeping bags, not tested by this standard, the Swiss company Mammut Sports Group AG offers traders a simple and fast method of compliance sleeping bag standard EN 13537. This method, based on statistically significant correlation of weight and temperature sleeping bag characteristics observed in the process of testing different sleeping bag standard EN 13537 is to verify compliance of one of the declared in the specification of sleeping bag temperature values to the total weight of this sleeping bag (weight including compression bag). As temperature values on the basis of which the determination is called the compliance, is the value T Limit as the most important parameter characterizing the insulating properties of a sleeping bag (see above). In their submissions, Mammut Sports Group AG, gives several tables and graphs that enable to determine approximately the value of T Limit corresponding to the trade organization determined by weighing a sleeping bag - these tables and charts are summarized by the author of this article in the table below. Determining the weight of the sleeping bag together with compression bag (in grams), you should find the closest weight value in the part of the table that corresponds to the material of the insulation sleeping bag (down or synthetic), the quality of the insulation (quality or cheap), and the shape of a sleeping bag (cocoon or blanket; "blanket" refers to sleeping bag rectangular shape). Found in the weight table corresponds to the value given in the leftmost column of a table value T Limitdefined by the standard EN 13537; this value is then compared with the value T Limitspecified on the label of a sleeping bag.

ATTENTION: when working with this table below, consider a number of circumstances. These include the following:

Since the table contains only a few values that the parameter can accept T Limit, this table, despite the fact that it uses absolutely all of the data that can be found in the materials above named company, gives a fairly approximate estimate of this parameter - the firm Mammut indicates that only when a significant difference was found between using its tables and charts, the value and the value specified in the technical specifications of a sleeping bag, a trade organization should require from the manufacturer test certificate to EN standard 13537. An important consideration is the fact that charts and tables of the Mammut company, which served as source material for the following table was not updated for quite a long time: being first published in November 2003, they were taken in the latest revision of materials by Mammut (may 2006) without any changes (note: search for more the new edition of these materials, held in 2011, was not a success). The need for more frequent updating of such information materials, however, cannot be questioned: while the emergence of a new type of fluff seems unlikely that the pace of development of new technologies in the field of synthetic materials used in the shells and in the insulation of sleeping bags is quite high. You also need to remember that when weighing sleeping bag, anticipating the comparison made with help of the table below, also taken into account and the weight attached to this bag compression bag, which, in the head#1074;animosty on the material and buckles can sometimes exceed 200 grams. Consider the fact that the table shows the weight values corresponding to only single sleeping bags, i.e. bags that are not combinations of several individual components, different combinations of which allow to vary insulating characteristics. The table also remain unaccounted for and those sleeping bags, the insulation is a combination of down and synthetics. Mention should also be made that the company Mammut does not specify in their submissions, what exactly do the words "quality" and "cheap" - seems to be quite logical assumption that "quality down" is nothing like goose down, which has very high fill power, while in the case with sleeping bags, insulation made from synthetic fibers, the word "cheap" should be understood in a literal sense, that is, to focus solely on the cost of these sleeping bags.

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Approximate estimated weight of down and synthetic sleeping bags
for some values of "lower comfort temperature for men" (T Limit)

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0oC

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950 gr.

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1700 gr.

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1550 gr.

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1900 gr.

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3000 gr.

THE INSULATION MATERIAL IS, ITS QUALITY, SHAPE SLEEPING BAG

POOH

SYNTHETIC

quality

cheap

quality

cheap

cheap

form: cocoon

form: cocoon

form: cocoon

form: cocoon

form: blanket

-26oC

2000 gr.

---

---

---

---

-15oC

1600 gr.

2800 gr.

2450 gr.

2950 gr.

---

-12oC

1400 gr.

2600 gr.

2300 gr.

2750 gr.

---

-4oC

1100 gr.

2100 gr.

1800 gr.

2200 gr.

---

+3oC

850 gr.

1500 gr.

1300 gr.

1650 gr.

2550 gr.

+10oC

500 gr

1000 gr.

850 gr.

1100 gr.

1750 gr.

+17oC

---

---

---

500 gr.

800 gr.

Table compiled by the author of this article (www.kombrig.net) based on multiple tables
and charts, Swiss company Mammut Sports Group AG; data as of 2006.
Listed in the table of weight values include the weight compression bag

Attention: at the request of the new edition of materials on the testing of sleeping bags according to the scheme of "weight - T Limit", sent by the author of this article Swiss company Mammut in August 2011, called the firm said that it will publish the requested material along with a new revision of materials relating to European standard EN 13537. Once these materials are published, they will be added to this article.

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The pros and cons of standard EN 13537

A positive aspect of the new standard is, of course, the opportunity to compare the temperature characteristics of sleeping bags from different manufacturers, since testing of these bags is the standard method. The positive features of the new standard also applies "temperature correction" - that is, the accounting "Merzlyakov" (women).

The new standard, however, ignores a number of factors, which include, for example, the following:

• Previous tests of sleeping bags was carried out, usually in groups consisting of at least several hundred persons of different height, weight and physique. Unlike the previous tests, a temperature test to EN 13537 has a different weight and height the user's sleeping bag. It is natural to expect that people with physiological parameters exceeding these values, will feel in sleeping bags, rated according to EN 13537, quite comfortable (the quantity of heat depends on the height and weight of a person: the larger a person is, the more it emits heat, and, consequently, the more heat is delayed a sleeping bag). Sensations of users with less weight and height than those oriented to the standard EN 13537, most likely, will be different; ideally, these users will be forced to consider a certain, "personal" amendment.

• Given the fact that the sports which employ a sleeping bags, are the privilege of not only "young and strong", but also people of different ages and different physical conditions, it is necessary to ask the question of the reliability test simulating only 25-year-old people. The dummy used in the tests of sleeping bags, simulates a person with a high heat release, we are fully rested and eating properly and regularly. In real conditions, - day treks, the situation looks different. In fairness it should be noted that previous tests of sleeping bags (on the people) was based on a similar ideal in terms of heat dissipation, situation.

• Temperature test to EN 13537 does not take into account the influence of various types of insulating mats and clothing on thermal balance of the user's sleeping bag - Mat and clothing
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in the test standardized.

• Test standard EN 13537 subject brand new sleeping bags, staying in a dry condition. Thus, this test does not take into account the decrease of insulating properties of the filler sleeping bags over time, and "impact" of multi-day hikes with a heat insulation material – the body of a sleeping releases moisture; if the insulating material sleeping bag for some reason does not dry out, the insulating properties of the latter are reduced; if you have a large amount of moisture entering the inside of the filler sleeping bag both from inside and outside, reduce the insulating properties of this bag can without exaggeration be described by the word "disastrous". The dummies used in tests of thermal sleeping bags, do not simulate sweating (with the exception of SAM the dummy used in the tests conducted by EMPA, the Swiss Organisation for Testing Materials (see below) - this dummy, however, is not to EN 13537 standard; in addition, the test conducted on this mannequin, is many times more expensive than the standard test). In a temperature test to EN 13537 takes into account the factor of sweating, however, in a simplified form, designed in the laboratory, values. Due to the lack of simulation of sweating during the test it is possible to assume that cheap sleeping bags successfully pass this test, because, as a rule, have air and/or water resistant material of the outer shell. To contribute to the successful completion of the test, cheap sleeping bag will also be of Advisory nature of the new standard and, in particular, the fact that the new standard allows for the minimum (i.e. only test without temperature control of the materials from which made this sleeping bag).

• Sleeping bags
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rectangular in shape, most likely, will also demonstrate good performance in the test according to EN 13537. In this test the sleeping bag fits snugly fixed dummy; and in the case of a living person due to the movement of the latter in a dream would necessarily be to expand the lower part of the sleeping bag, causing a large heat loss.

• Temperature test to EN 13537 is done indoors, and, thus, does not take into account various factors, not only present, but also changing in real conditions - for example, circulation of the ambient air and its humidity.

• Baby sleeping bags
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not subject to test according to EN 13537, despite the fact that it is in the field of children's sports equipment requires higher safety standard (in the case of a sleeping bag is necessary to consider the fact that children get cold faster than adults).

INFORMATION ABOUT TEMPERATURE TEST TO EN 13537

Thermal tests of sleeping bags according to EN 13537 spend currently five specialized organizations: Thelma AS (Norway); Hohensteiner Institute (Germany); Institut Français Textile-Habillement (IFTH), France; Instituto Tecnológico Textil (AITEX), Spain and Institute for Environmental Research at the University of Kansas, USA. Deflection data obtained by different testing organizations, do not exceed ±5%.

First heat (heated) dummy (thermal manikin), called Copperman ("copper man") was created in 1941-1942. in the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory (USA) and was used for testing of clothing and sleeping bags used by the American army. He was held in secret until 1980. when heated copper manikin was publicly proposed as a tool for testing of clothing and sleeping bags. Firm the North Face STK#1072;La the first manufacturer to have already applied a new test method on their sleeping bags.

After the initial euphoria, however, most manufacturers went back to their previous method of testing (on humans), the researchers continued the development of thermal manikins, trying to create the dummy, which can simulate a sleeping person. The first success in these studies fell to the lot of the Institute Hohenstein (Hohensteiner Institute, Germany), created the dummy of Charlie, who had 15 heating zones. Subsequently developed 3 thermal manikin: Louise (20 thermal zones, AS Thelma), Martin (35 thermal zones, development of the French research centre Institut Français Textile-Habillement (IFTH), and SAM (Sweating Agile Manikin, the development of EMPA, the Swiss Organization of Testing Materials) - movable mannequin, capable of simulating not only a person's walking, sitting, standing and sleeping, but also and the person sweating. The latest mannequin is the most technically perfect of all existing; the tests using this dummy, however, are very expensive. German technological parameters of the dummy Charlie is a standard parameters used in temperature tests according to EN 13537.

Each thermal manikin equipped with thermocouples, simulating the heat of human body, as well as with temperature sensors, temperature recorders "skin". During the test the dummy is in the refrigerator, where the humidity and temperature constant and air circulation is minimized. Depending on the organization conducting the test, the dummy is in a sleeping bag in either "naked" or wearing a long functional underwear and socks
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(standard test according to EN 13537 provides for a underwear and socks). During a standard test to EN 13537 manikin wrapped in a sleeping bag, lying on the Mat of a solid (non-perforated) otkryitogo polyurethane foam having a thickness of about 4 centimeters; this Mat, in turn, is on a camping (camping) beds.

The mannequin is heated thermocouples to a standard temperature (34o C), then within about 30 minutes is measured of heat energy going to maintain constant temperature of various "body parts" of the dummy. The resistance of a sleeping bag is calculated based on the volume of the body of the dummy and the difference in the ambient temperature and the temperature on the surface of the manikin.

A producer willing to put test to EN standard 13537 some model of their sleeping bags, should provide this model one of testing organizations; in this model of sleeping bag should have a size suitable for a person with growth not less than 180 centimeters. As an additional option, in the test process can be defined "breathing ability" of the materials of the sleeping bag; this option, however, would require cutting a sleeping bag.

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About "the second half of the case" - that is, on the Mat

Buying camping equipment necessary to ensure proper rest, do not rely solely on the thermal insulation properties of a sleeping bag. No matter how expensive, comfortable and warm was the sleeping bag, inappropriate temperature conditions, the Mat and clothes
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can turn first night spent there, in a nightmare. Any tourist it is clear that the properties of a sleeping bag depends on the ability of this bag to retain heat. Sleeping bag, however, will be only one half the story, because laboratory methods it is proved that a considerable part of the heat, lose the sleeping person, leaves in the direction of the litter (according to different sources, up to 50% of the total heat loss of the sleeping, depending on the position of his body), that is, in a direction where the filler sleeping bag is squeezed (flattened). Thus, the camping Mat can be considered the "second half of the case", as its most important task is to prevent the outflow of the greater part of the heat produced by the person, and thus, in preserving the heat inside your sleeping bag. A truly comfortable sleep You will have only when there is a combination of "Mat+sleeping bag", both of which correspond to temperatures.

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