it's the preparation and organization of sports trips for the purpose of overcoming the long space wildlife skiing (ski tourism), by means of rafting (boating) or on foot in the mountains (mountaineering). Sports travel is carried out by Autonomous groups of 6-10 people. It happens that the travelers during the month does not meet any traces of civilization. To navigate the route you need to be not only strong, agile, courageous and resistant, but also possess a wide range of special knowledge of the techniques to overcome the obstacles to human physiology in extreme conditions.
unlike ordinary travel sports travel includes a set classified according to the complexity of natural obstacles. As a rule, in mountain and ski tourism such obstacles are mountain peaks and passes, and in boating - river rapids. Classified obstacles form the basis of a methodology for comparison of travel by their difficulty.
This is similar to the estimation of complexity of programs in gymnastics or figure skating. Brilliantly executed the most complex of the lot shall be nominated at the Moscow championship and the championship of Russia.
On the pass
Organization and holding of sports travel obey the Rules approved by the Tourist-sports Union of Russia. In these Rules, the accumulated experience of generations of travelers. Therefore, it is guaranteed made in sports tourism level of safety. This system controls the route-qualification commissions (IWC). In particular, the ICC checks the readiness of the group to enter the path and match the experience of trip participants. In accordance with the Rules of sports travel can have six categories of difficulty (K.S.). If the first lot K.S. feasible for beginners, travel sixth K.S. extreme even for the strongest and most experienced hikers. Indeed, mining of the six at individual sites may include climbing of peaks over 7000 m, ski "six" hundreds and hundreds of miles of road in forty-degree frost through the endless Siberian ridges, water "six" is mind-blowing rafting on wild rivers of the Altai and Central Asia.
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Ahead of the summit
Established over decades of sports tourism minimum limits initiative travelers. Currently sporting trip can be arranged to any part of the world, while everyone can become a team leader, if only he had the experience in traveling the same category of difficulty and experience of leadership in the journey that one category is easier. Other members of the team are required to have experience in more simple (one category) journey. In addition to this basic principle the Rules specified exceptions, to better address the actual experiences of travelers (such as mountain climbing experience or experience in other types of sports tourism). Master level in sports tourism is associated with travel management in the highest (5th and 6th) grades of difficulty. So, making two trips a year, gifted athlete reaches this level for 5 - 6 years.
And this happens!
is not only a sport. It allows you to explore the culture of living in the area of lot of peoples, to enjoy the contemplation of wonderful landscapes, experience the thrill of the Explorer as a pioneer. Of course, in the era of total aerial photography of discovery's impossible to do so, however, you can still visit places where no one has gone before. Finally, sports tourism is a school of wisdom. This is the exact calculation of the forces, the ability to foresee events and predict the course of ensuing processes.
Ranks and ranks
currently the title of MSIC in sport tourism is not assigned, the remaining qualifying sports categories and ranks are assigned to weathering in the territory of Russia. October 15, 2013 was held a meeting of the Commission on uausc of the Ministry of sport. The Commission took the decision to restore the discharge candidate Master of sports and sports titles of Master of sports of Russia in the group of sports disciplines "route".
in addition, in CT there are specialized professional titles associated with the right of realization of professional or teaching activities in the field of sports tourism: our guide, instructor (senior instructor, instructor of international class) sports tourism.
As in other official sports, in sport tourism there are organized and professional refereeing, which activity is regulated by corresponding normative documents. By gaining the experience of judging and passing relevant training(schools, seminars), judges acquire the appropriate judicial ranks. At the same time, specific feature of refereeing in the ARTICLE is that the remuneration of referees is small, or the refereeing is carried out on a voluntary basis. Many of the judges are sports tourists with great experience and significant achievements in sports. Sporting judge's ARTICLE is, without exaggeration, are respected, honorable representatives of the sports community PT.
Many sports tourists are also engaged in related activities: orienteering and Multisport, climbing, mountaineering, rafting, mountain Biking, skiing, yacht sport, etc. Sport tourists are, including a reserve for rescue training in the natural environment.
Sports tourism, first of all, sports trips, is a team sport in which a strong tradition of mutual aid and mutual assistance, sports, self-improvement and mutual transfer of knowledge and experience.
Passion for sport tourism allows to get acquainted with the culture and lifestyle of different countries and Nations, with wonderful and often unique nature, interesting sights, get pleasure from communication, to acquire reliable comrades.
Part in sports tours primary categories of difficulty in the races, as a rule, does not require significant financial costs at the same time allows you to obtain the necessary basic skills and the pleasure of participating in campaigns and competitions.
a Class sports tourism, as a complex sport performed in complex natural and social environment, of course, carries inherent risks, and requires a versatile athlete knowledge, skills, experience and a good physical, technical and psychological preparation.
In large cities of Russia there are many athletic organizations sports tourism tourist and Amateur clubs, which, among other things, conduct schools for training of tourism personnel (primary, basic, specialized and tertiary level)). Training in these schools is desirable, though not essential to practice tourism.
Positions in the sports campaign
Among the main functional positions in the sports campaign, in addition to the official post of the head touriststhe group comprises the Deputy group leader (may be assigned as required), leader (captain) means alloy or sport vessel, medic, Navigator, head of the economy (steward), head gear (zausner), mechanics (remaster), meteorologist, Treasurer, timekeeper, historian, photographer, etc. At the same time, the division is ex officio, with the exception of the head, and to a certain extent, the medic (if the medic is a professional honey. worker), fairly flexible, K. all tour groups must possess in varying degrees the various basic skills and implement mutual aid whenever necessary.In small groups one person combines various positions.
in sports tourism depends on its type and includes special clothing and footwear (jacket and trousers storm, wind, insulated, Samoobrona andp., underwear, gloves, trekking, ski, mountain or trekking-Cycling shoes, boots, uniform, wet and dry diving suits, neoprene shoes or socks, goggles of various kinds, etc.), hats or helmets, ropes, carabiners, etc. technical means of insurance and work with ropes, flashlights with batteries, tents, awnings, climbing tools and accessories (alpenstocks, ice axes, crampons, running poles, snowshoes, etc.), and campfire accessories camp cookware, multi-fuel burner, navigation and communication equipment, and pack animals, equipment and inventory by type (catamarans, etc. alloy tools, skis, bicycles, cars and motorcycles, etc.).
the basic skills of a tourist are: first aid, organization and conduction of evacuation of the injured, skills, site selection and installation of camps and temporary settlements, working with ropes and technical guidance crossings, insurance and otherD., techniques of movement and overcoming obstacles of various kinds, organization order of movement and other actions in the group, survival in extreme conditions (for example, sleeping in the snow, works in malnutrition, extreme weather conditions, action in the event of loss of contact with the group, self-help, use as improvised equipment andp.), making the menu and the layout of the power in sport campaign, lighting and maintenance of fire, preparation of food, repair equipment, orientation and navigation, psychological work and conflict resolution, management of various works and actions in extreme situations. Additional useful skills include knowledge of the language of the campaign area, or common language, skills related type of tourism and sports, the skills of hunting and fishing, treatment of animals and various appliances, useful knowledge in geography, flora and fauna, the skill of the negotiator, the storyteller, engineering knowledge.
Types of sports tourism
By type varies:
- pedestrian — movement on the route is primarily on foot. The main objective is to overcome the relief and landscape obstacles on foot, for the highest category of complexity - in areas with difficult terrain and climatic conditions.
- ski — the movement of the route is mainly on skis. The main objective is to overcome the relief and landscape obstacles on snow and snow-ice cover on skis, to high complexity - in the harsh climatic zones and in the highlands.
- mountain — Hiking in the mountains. The main task is the passage of the mountain passes, climbing peaks, traverses mountain ranges.
- water — an alloy on the rivers on the alloy (courts), usually in mountainous terrain. The main task is the passage of water obstacles formed by the topography of the riverbed and the features of its course.
- caving — travelling by underground cavities (caves, cavern systems, including partly flooded with water). The main objective is to overcome structural obstacles in the caves.
- sailing travel on vessels sailing on the sea or the waters of the great lakes. The main task is the implementation of the plan of campaign of the vessel in accordance with the rules of navigation in inland waters and open sea.
- at the vehicles section, including Cycling, horse riding and automotive tourism. The main objective is to overcome the longest route on the relief and landscape obstacles (roads and trails with different terrain and cover, up to roads on the edge of proyezzhayemost (patency), tourism, sheep paths and animal migration paths, fords and crossings, mountain passes, traverses, etcD.) in difficult conditions, usually in mountainous or difficult climate and topography highly-rugged terrain.
- combined — Hiking, which combines elements of different types of tourism;
- Motorcycle — a type of tourism in which the motorcycle is the means of transportation. The concept of "motorcycle tourism" is ambiguous and refers both to one of the activities and kinds of sports tourism.
age and social - based sports tourism is divided into:
- children's tourism;
- youth tourism;
- adult tourism;
- family tourism;
- for people with disabilities.
In recent years, active development following areas of sports tourism:
- travel (including single lot);
- extreme tourism;
- discipline distance;
- Discipline distance indoors on artificial relief;
- short routes in the class of sports Hiking.
Sports tourist campaigns
depending on the difficulty of overcoming the obstacles district hike, autonomy, originality, length of the route and a number of other factors specific to different types of sports tourism, by increasing the complexity of the hikes are divided into:
- weekend trips;
- Hiking 1 — 3 degrees of difficulty — in youth tourism;
- sport categorical Hiking. In different types of tourism number of different categories of complexity: the pedestrian, mountain, water, ski, Cycling and caving — six categories of difficulty (K. S.); in avtomoto - sailing and tourism — five; in equestrian — three.
More details are given in the division "all-Russian Unified sports classification of tourist routes"(ISCTM). Route-qualification Commission are public expert (certification) bodies opinion on the categories of itineraries, confirmation of qualifications of the participants and the supervisor declared the difficulty of marsruta. They work with sports organisations and sports tourism (regional and national federations) and the number of their accredited organizations of physical culture (sport and tourist clubs). Route-qualification Commission, among its other functions, is the authority authorizing the issuance of the group in the sports tourism campaign.
Ranks and titles in sports tourism
Category of tourist-athlete shows his sports skills, reflected in the ability to passage routes for specific categories of difficulty.
To receive the sports category of tourism before going through the route group is required to register and obtain a permit in the route-qualification Commission (IWC). After the hike, the ICC shall submit a report, on the basis of which there is consideration of materials, and in the case of a positive decision the ranks are assigned to the participants and the leader.
According to the "Bit requirements for sports tourism in 2010-2013"can be assigned ranks (in ascending order of sportsmanship):
- the badge "Tourist of Russia" is awarded to the tourists who are 12 years of age;
- 3-rd youth level;
- 2nd youth level;
- 1st youth level;
- 3rd adult level;
- 2nd adult level;
- the 1st adult level;
- candidate master of sports (CCM);
- master of sport (MS).
- honoured master of sports of Russia (VMT)
- the First and only master of sport in sport tourism in the discipline of distance is Natalia Mustafa (2013)
Tourist and sports competitions
Tourist and sports competition is the movement of man alone or as part of a group in a natural environment on any hardware and without them. "SHH" are held by two groups of disciplines: 1. "Routes" — just trips and sports tours (in accordance with the category of complexity); 2. "Distance" — the former "tourist around" — depending on the complexity of the stages are divided into classes from 1 to 6. The class conditional distance corresponds to the complexity of the corresponding campaign.
the Competition is usually separately for each type of tourism. Carrying out of competitions on the combined distances.
socio-age factors of competition are divided into:
- among the elderly;
- among veterans;
- among boys and/or girls;
- for men and/or women;
- among people with disabilities.
the Amateur movement of the tourists pursuing your fitness goals, organizationally represented tourist groups (teams) and clubs tourists by place of residence, sections of sports tourism at the local level. At the regional level — the regional public sports organisations (federations). At the Federal level, the lead authority for tourists-athletes is the Tourist-sports Union of Russia (Federation of sports tourism of Russia) located in Moscow.
History of sports tourism
- In 1949 is included in Uniform all-Union sports classification.
- In 1970 the first organized competition for the best tourism campaign.
Sociology of tourism
Due to the relative availability of sports and health tourism are engaged in children, as well as all segments of the population regardless of social status and wealth. is one of the popular sports.