Polyester (polyester) — synthetic fiber based on polyester and the fabric of it. The material can only be manufactured from polyester, and with the addition of artificial and natural fibers (cotton, wool, rayon).
Polyester fabric has low crease retention, good heat, light and weathering, durability, resistance to stains, abrasion and organic solvents, strong electrified, the difficulty of staining. Polyester also reinforces good form when heated, which is widely used in the manufacture of fabrics of the crash.
Polyester is perhaps the most common synthetic fabric. On bed and underwear, clothing, you can often see this combination of letters "polyester". But not only fabrics, but also plastic containers, badges and bags are made through such chemical combination. Such a variety of applications due to the fact that at temperatures above 40 degrees polyester holds shape.
In the production of clothing this quality is also a plus, as all the folds, clips and original form of a product even with numerous washings will remain unchanged.
Polyester is obtained by a multilevel chemical reaction of monomers. It is made from chemical compounds in the oil. These include ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid.
Research on the preparation of the polyester were launched in the UK in the 1930-ies. English chemists John Winfield and James Dickson in 1941 received the material polyethylene terephthalate (PET). But the patent was obtained only in 1945, first publications about him were published only in 1946, but its use only started in the early 60-ies for the production of packaging products. With 70 years of polyester fiber have been used in the manufacture of clothing.
The first commercial production of polyester started the company Du Pont de Nemours Company.
In the USSR this material appeared in 1949, after which soon began to be used in many fields of industry.
Polyester comes in 3 States: film, fiber and plastic. Initially it was used in the production of packaging. Currently, he is literally invaded all areas of the textile industry.
To the touch products from polyester like fabric. It can be cotton, wool and even silk. It depends on the way we produce and the availability of additional fibers in tissue.
In addition, this material is considered the most popular among synthetic analogues. It is durable, inexpensive and easy to care for.
The use of polyester
Polyester has a wide application. It is made into garments or the lining for her pants, shirts, skirts, shorts, dresses, umbrellas, caps, ties, socks, different yarns, bedspreads, blankets, curtains, lingerie etc D. Also this kind of material is added in the manufacture of bed linen.
Depending on the technology used to obtain the following types of threads:
Of them manufactured clothing, textiles, soft toys. The polyester also acts as a heater (for example, hollofayber, padding polyester, hollohan). Polyester has many faces. On sale it is covered under the following names:
The name "Dacron" is typical for Russia. The chemical formula of this compound is (C10H8O4)n, and the full name "polyethylene terephthalate". Its development in our country began in 1949, in 1956 –pilot production of fibers.
Types of polyester
- Polyester Microfiber fabric, which is created on the basis of polyester microfiber with a special weave of very thin fibers, which increases its protective properties.
- Polyester Mini Mesh – mesh of polyester, which is generally used as linings. This fabric enhances the removal of moisture from the body and improves breathability.
- Polyester Peach Washer is the same fabric, as Polyester and Microfiber, but with a velvety surface.
- Polyester Polar Fleece – unstructured felted polyester, which is very pleasant to the touch, retains heat well, durable and wear-resistant.
- Polyester / PVC – polyester fabric, further processed on the wrong side of the PVC to increase durability and moisture resistance.
- Polyester Tricot / polyester stretch fabric with high durability. Retains its shape in the process and after many washes.
- Polyester Tricot Shiny – polyester fabric with characteristic luster.
The creation of polyester is a complex process. It is a chemical reaction involving a number of components. Used for the production of petrochemical products. They exhibit special properties, which are used in light industry, both in pure and in combined form. Raw material is the dimethyl ester of terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. However, the methods create in each country are different, although the principle remains unified.
Dimethyl ether at a temperature of about 200 degrees is subjected to transesterification at the same time as diglycolic ester of terephthalic acid at a temperature of 270 degrees — polycondensation to form polyethylene terephthalate resin. Fiber just is obtained from this melt.
However, when fiber is better to use ethylene oxide, which was created by way of catalytic oxidation. This is necessary as in ethylene oxide, obtained using chloroethanol, almost always contains impurities of hydrocarbons containing chlorine.
The phases of the polyester:
- synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate;
- creating fiber;
Methods for the production of polyethylene terephthalate:
- of acid chloride of terephthalic acid and glycol on the basis of inert solvent, using an alkaline catalyst;
- if polyesterification terephthalic acid and glycol, which is taken in large quantities, using catalysts of esterification;
- dimethylterephthalate the transesterification of ethylene glycol with further polycondensation of the resulting digitalcertificate.
The first methods are considered uneconomic because of lack of materials for production.
The latter has found wide application. It consists of two stages:
- polycondensation using antimony trioxide.
As a result of polycondensation, all components (raw, catalysts, additives) are mixed together.
As a result of esterification obtained esters based on the alcohol and acids.
Prepolycondensation and polycondensation are connected in one stage, which is the synthesis of polymers and isolation of compounds with low-molecular structure. Next comes the pelletizing process.
Followed by solid-phase copolycondensation. At this stage there is a sharp cooling and the heating of polymers. It is necessary to increase viscosity. However, the production is not over. The melt is extruded through the holes of machines, again cooled, is granulated and sent to create a fiber.
The result of such complex operations, and is the creation of the final product, which is used to make fabric.
Polyester has the following properties and characteristics:
- Heat conductivity: 0,14 W/(m*K);
- Density: Of 1.38—1.4 g/cm3
- The percent elongation: 12-55% ;
- The degree of decomposition: 350 degrees;
- Melting: 250-265 degrees;
- Moisture absorption: 0,3%;
- soluble in acetone, benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate.
However, despite these data polyester fiber is afraid of high temperatures. If you wash at temperatures above 40 degrees, there will be deformation of the product. It can form stable folds, which cannot be spread.
Although this quality at the same time is a plus. Thanks to him, designers can create on the fabric or on finished garment pleating, complicated clamps and strain which will remain constant even with prolonged use.
Properties of polyester
Polyester is a special type of synthetic fabric made from polyester fibers. In appearance it resembles the wool and its characteristics are very similar to cotton. The fabric is made of 100% polyester:
Made from polyester fabric resistant to UV rays and long retain their original color. Therefore, such material does not fade under direct sunlight. Polyester is not susceptible to damage by moths and other pests. Another good feature is the resistance to stains. Polyester has a high density in the range of 1.38-1.4 g/cm3, resistant to acids and solutions of weak alkalis.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any fabric, polyester is not ideal. It has its pros and cons. Although thanks to the continuous development in the industry of the latter are being phased out. Perhaps, in the near future, scientists will create the fabric, which is completely devoid of flaws!
- Strength and durability;
- Ease of care;
- Not exposure to acids and solvents;
- Resistance to fading;
- Not stretches;
- Is not deformed when worn;
- Dries quickly;
- Temperature resistance;
- The hydrophobicity. The material practically does not absorb moisture, therefore remains dry even in bad weather, can be used as a lining for warm clothing;
- Insensitivity to the spool;
- No exposure to harmful insects;
- The resistance to contamination;
- The possibility of any design and construction;
- This material does not crumple, and is easy to wash;
- After washing dries very quickly'
- High moisture resistance;
- Bad air permeability;
- Sometimes harmful. This is possible if in the manufacture of remained monomers not involved in the main chain. Over time, they can be dissolved in water or contaminate the air, depends on the initial characteristics of the element (volatile or soluble).
- Has a greater rigidity;
- Difficult to staining. Dye does not penetrate into the fibers;
- The ability to accumulate static electricity.
Better polyester or other synthetic fabrics is not? We have learned that, using the comparison method.
|Composition||An artificial fibre based on cellulose||Synthetic fiber that is based on the melt of polyethylene terephthalate or its derivatives||Synthetic fiber-based polyamides|
|Tactile sensation||Soft and gentle||Tough enough fabric||Soft and silky|
|Appearance||Has a nice sheen similar to silk||Has a slight "synthetic" Shine||Depending on the production can be smooth or rough, shiny or matte|
|Scope||Used in almost all areas of the textile industry||Wide scope of application. Used both for underwear and outerwear||To create products that have direct contact with the body|
|Strength||Strong enough fiber, but improper care can easily tend to be used up||Heavy-duty||Very durable|
|Flammability||Flammable. The burning goes smoothly||The melting point of 200 degrees||Not lit. Fusion forms a small ball|
|Hygroscopicity||Absorbs moisture||Practically does not absorb moisture||Does not absorb moisture|
|The degree of creasing||A high degree of creasing||Slight creasing||Not wrinkled|
|Breathability||Breathes well||Hardly breathes at||Breathes well|
|Staining||Well-served painting||Difficult to coloring||Hard to color|
|Static electricity||Does not accumulate||Accumulates||Accumulates|
|Care||Needs careful care. With numerous washings, the thread may fade and become dry and brittle||Needs no special care. Easy to wash and dries quickly. Valid machine wash at 40 degrees (in some cases, permitted washing temperature 60 degree)||Easy maintenance. Valid both manual and machine wash at 40 degrees. You can use a dry cleaning|
|Ironing||Can be ironed at a temperature not exceeding 150 degrees from the wrong side||Ironing is not needed, but in special cases it is allowed to use the iron on the lowest temperature with the use of additional fabric||Ironing is not needed. But in extreme cases allowable iron at minimum temperature without using steam|
After buying things from polyester, you must first familiarize yourself with the labels care labels.
To wash such a product can with light things the temperature is not above 40 degrees, as in more hot water may have creases. When washing in the washing machine, you must choose a delicate. Polyester is impossible to apply the bleach. When washing, you can add a special antistatic agent.
Since the material dries quickly, the stuff after washing, you can shake and hang to dry on a coat hanger.
Products from polyester usually don't need Ironing, but if she still necessary, the iron should be set to minimum temperature.
The best way to remove stains from polyester is warm soapy water. The stain should first be cleaned of dirt, and then wipe clean with a cloth or brush moistened in soapy solution of water. After such a procedure the place must be washed with clean water and dried.
If this way of dealing with spots not helped, then you can try to remove it with a weak solution of the chemical stain remover. First, it is best to check their effect on inconspicuous area of the product.
Though this fabric and chemical origin, but modern manufacturing technologies make it totally safe for use. Polyester pleasant to the touch, has good appearance, but also durable, so you can safely choose the clothes and other things from this material.
- Can not be washed together products from synthetic and natural fibers;
- It is not recommended to wash polyester at a temperature above 40 degrees;
- Valid machine wash things on delicate mode, unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's instructions;
- Things dry quickly, so using centrifuge for spinning is not necessarily;
- It is not recommended to use bleaching agents in the wash;
- For stain removing will be enough applying warm, soapy water to the surface;
- When rinsing it is recommended to add an antistatic agent;
- Products do not need Ironing. But if it is extremely necessary to iron the cloth on the minimum temperature, using an additional fabric;
- It is better to dry on a horizontal surface.
Polyester is a durable fabric, which shows itself very well in operation. Despite its unnatural origin, it is very pleasant to the touch and in appearance. Modern production technology has led to the fact that these cloths are perfectly safe, and can be used when sewing many garments. Choosing the fabric for yourself, consider its properties, and pick the most suitable one.