the Ideology of choice of equipment
In the mountains plays a very important role. Many varieties of terrain cannot be overcome without specific equipment, and a simple life in the mountains can be severely marred by a bad selection of things.
But, unfortunately, a lot of people don't know how to choose , and regularly comes on the same rake. There are many widespread misconceptions that in the best case over wasted money:
- "To the question "who is the best (cats, backpack, etc) for the mountains and how their store is cheaper just to buy" there is necessarily the answer"
- "Company X is the best. So if I buy its products, it will be the best choice regardless of a particular model"
- "I successfully passed in jeans (rubber boots, etc), so your gortex is a waste of money"
- "My supervisor uses Y, he knows what to do, so on the next trip I should definitely buy this outfit"
- and soD.
in short, people often do not take minimal effort to significantly ease their life, or buying unnecessary or non-optimal things and then suffer with them. My advice on choosing the best equipment, there is nothing new, it's just a systematic set of methods for analyzing different situations. But if we understand their ideology and begin to apply in practice, many errors can be avoided.
you Can highlight four characteristics any equipment that we should always look at before purchasing.
- Cost. Measured in $/year or per year, depending on the currency in which get wages :-). Is determined by the amount you had to pay per item and how many years she has served. The way to minimize that is to look for a place where to buy cheap, to get used, to hire, to sew yourself.
- Weight. Measured in grams (not kilograms). The extra 100g is a lot. The way to minimize is to weigh all your gear with accuracy up to 10g, then often it becomes clear what is typed weight.
- Comfort. A subjective measure of how much more pleasant is the life of owning this particular thing. From heat generated good jacket and ending with the ease of driving in ice is good cats.
- Security. An objective measure of how much this thing reduces the probability of PE or the severity of its consequences. Most equipment directly did not affect the safety features, but when it occurs, such factors can not be ignored.
General optimality is determined by the sum of the parameters (of course, given the fact that the cost and the weight should be smaller, and the comfort and safety - more). But the magnitude of all these different and you can't just put snakes and parrots. It is therefore necessary always to place priorities for all characteristics - factors for their contribution to the total. These factors is an individual thing. If you are good with Finance, you will likely lower the priority value, if you feel like Schwarzenegger, then reduce the priority weight, as if often ignore the risk - reduce the priority of security. All of this makes the optimality of the equipmentindividual characteristic.
Various features of the rig often correlate with each other and are not strictly orthogonal. Exist as a real addiction, and not the myths, or universal truths.
- the Comfort often affects the safety. If a person feels uncomfortable and thinks only of a heavy backpack or wet shoes in the right time he can forget to think about security and do something wrong.
- Weight is actually one of the characteristics that define comfort, and I have it isolated in a separate option only because of the fact that almost always it is directed in the opposite direction to the rest of the components of comfort - more comfort is often achieved at the expense of greater weight.
- the Cost is often not related to comfort - not necessarily in the cats for$ 200, you will be more comfortable than in the cats for$100. The cost is made too large number of parameters - the cost of production, the untwisted name of the firm, trade margins of intermediaries and shopsD. Therefore, to draw conclusions about what this thing is good or bad only on the basis of the value to be reckless, though of course the saying about free cheese is often correct.
the Process of selecting the optimum gear is always a process comparison of two or more alternatives. It always involves one or more things, each of which you must determine the degree of its optimality. Plus definitely another option - nothing to buy or take a hike in this category of things (for example, to different choices of warm jackets in the campaign there is always another - not to take a jacket in principle). Such a "zero" variant at least has two ideal characteristics of four - price and weight :-).
so, the decision making procedure is already complicated enough - we have four characteristics that on the basis of subjective priorities are merged into a common criterion of optimality. But how to objective each of the four characteristics itself?
the easiest weight - 100g of Africa and they are 100g. These lifting 100 grams a height of 1 km (such as daily elevation gain in the hike - the usual thing) is approximately equivalent to lifting 10 kg per 10 meters. That is, assume that all evening they came to the place of a camp, set camp and rest, and there's a bucket of water to the fourth floor to drag. But if you a extra pounds with me...? The total weight of what you take in the campaign (starting with shoes and ending with a wristwatch), should not significantly exceed 20 kg, and preferably, aim for 15 kg.
value is more difficult. first, it is often difficult to ensure you find the cheapest place to buy your stuff. In the process of finding a place with a lower cost, it is important to remember that there are no cheap and expensive shop equipment. Often the store receives the products of different companies at different purchase prices and different sets of markup, and sometimes gives discounts on selected products. Therefore, one product may be cheaper in one shop, and another in another.
secondly, it is often difficult to assess the lifetime of the equipment, which is the second component of cost, except the price. This is especially true for products in which quality is not measured in simple numbers of type tensile strength. So, you cannot rely on statements that "my torn a week" or "my shoes have served for 5 years". In the first case, this may be an accidental marriage, and in the second you can't be sure that these boots are as good as 5 years ago. Therefore, the average waiting time of living, but in practice, the punctures may happen.
the worst part of the objective assessment of comfort. Comfort depends not only on the thing itself, but also on the place and method of its use, and on yourself.
where and how. Remember the most important axiom. UNIVERSAL EQUIPMENT does NOT EXIST. Every thing is designed on a fairly narrow range of application. Outside thing will work poorly or will not work at all. Things designed for a wide range, throughout its range are worse than highly specialized things. So just determine in which conditions will operate for you things this summer. The conditions affect not only the category of a hike, but mountain area, and even a specific route. The more you know about the conditions, the better you will be able to choose optimal equipment.
Remember that a big part of your you live more than one trip. Therefore, before buying equipment, you must decide what categories and Hiking you will go in the next few years. Can't do it - your problem :- ) then you run the risk of before each hike part of the equipment.
Individual specificity. Even in the same conditions for different people could be optimal different outfit. The simplest example - the shoes can go up on the block some people than to others. Anatomical features, tolerance of cold, force, reaction, and otherD. can significantly affect the assessment of the degree of comfort for you personally. And to properly assess this no one else but yourself, in principle, can not.
and, finally, the fourth characteristic, security, as subjective as comfort. It depends not only on the thing itself, but where and who uses it. A classic example is helmets.
From the foregoing it is obvious that in the assessment of the optimal things participates a variety of settings. Even if you have a good method of accounting and compare, correct conclusions can be done only on the basis of a large number information about properties of specific equipment.
Where to find information? primarily on the Internet. Find out which companies produce the equipment for your purposes, go to their websites and look up information on specific models. Draw your own conclusions. Find out what things really to buy in Moscow and how much. And then ask around friends and check Internet reviews on the models you are interested in. And finally, go to the shops and turn right things in his hands. If you go to the store type of Extreme sports, then one place you can see the products of many firms. At each stage of information search your optimality criterion may vary, so you should not skip any of them.
How to evaluate the importance of information? In the second part of the lecture will be given some specific advice on what to look for when selecting different equipment. But take great care in finding and analyzing information when you first purchase items from new categories for you - no real experience of operating the possibility of your errors is quite high.
What information to trust? In principle, the manufacturers of equipment outright misinformation on their websites do not post. But we should remain vigilant - numerical parameters may be adjusted to "hothouse" conditions (the weight of the tent without the cover, and the weight of the Shoe is for size 35 :- )) and describe the properties abound with laudatory phrases.
the comments about operation in the General case, we cannot trust any, especially all the forums in Internet.
- the Conditions in the recall should not be too much different from planned. Negative reviews about a particular product in not intended for conditions can generally be ignored.
- anyone who gives a review should have operating experience of other things from the same niche equipment. Without this, the reviewer cannot adequately assess how well or poorly the thing performed its function.
- Information should be fresh. Year by year the quality of equipment from the firms may vary, and can even be manufactured in different models under the same name.
- a Negative review is much more valuable than positive. Negative for the "reviewer" property sometimes things can be relevant for you. At the same time, a positive review can sometimes be caused by the subconscious desire of the owner to justify things in General fails buy :-).
the Choice is made, where to buy it? in fact, the procedure of searching for a store is no different from searching other information. Abstract the Council to buy in the store X does not make sense. Find out which stores products are sold you need company. Quite a large list of shops is on the site of a tourist club. If an item is needed urgently, then find out where to eat in stock the model you want. Very often the choice is narrowed down to one place or to zero - with all the richness of choice of equipment the actual range of products in the small shops. If the choice still left - compare prices. Don't forget to find out whether this store discount for our tourist club. If you are able to plan six months in advance - use a system of pre-orders. You can also try to buy used equipment or to rent it. To make the equipment yourself, but do not forget to pay in this case security issues special attention.
And the last moment - don't delay too much shopping for the summer. There you and so looking forward to spending on food, tickets,D. Better to buy gear now, especially as most of it will be useful in training.
Amount - children should be 90-110 liters backpack, girls can liters for 10-15 less. Not worth much to deviate both in one and in the other direction. Or otherwise you will bear all the breadcrumbs for the whole group, or will resemble a Christmas tree for hanging on the outside of the backpack of gear that didn't fit inside. And if the ice pick the spot under the ties of a backpack, or clothes outside is clearly redundant. Weight - around 2.0-2.5 kg. Less may be inconvenient, more - may be too invasive. Material - avizent or Cordura (worse get wet, but more wear and heavier). Design type - with a semi-rigid armor (plate or tube in the back of the backpack). Easel (E. this is where the frame is the supporting structure) is not necessary - it is hard to repair in field conditions + frame in the fall, you can get on the head. Soft backpack is not worth it - badly behaved, when not Packed fully + loaded stronger shoulders.
the Remaining parameters are poorly formalized and the main criterion here is that you need to carry in it a lot of weight. Be sure to download it in the store not less than 30 kg and listen to your feelings. If it sits badly on you and no adjustment does not help - do not take. The most important thing in the backpack is a suspension (belt, back and shoulder straps), it must repeat the contours of your body, distribute weight evenly and do not flatten "zero" load. Positive things - great float valve on top, low pockets on the outer wall of the backpack, pockets under the tie-rods, handles for transportation.
don't forget the lanyard to a backpack! The carbine can nattoway. The cover on - not necessary and usually the extra weight is still all the things in the bag should be tightly Packed.
Main in the campaign, can be a source of pride (we all got wet, and I don't :- ) and a source of endless torment. The thing is very individual, be sure to carefully measure the shoes with an inappropriate Shoe you can not buy in any case, how would they get you on other options didn't like. The geometry of the pads is usually highly dependent on the company. The choice of the shoes is closely tied to the choice of cats - if you are planning to go hike in the cats, the choice of possible options narrows dramatically, and to buy boots and cats should be in pair.
it is Possible to consider three types of shoes. Trekking - lightweight (1.0-1.5 kg of steam), the sole is quite soft, but stiffer than regular sneakers, + fixed ankle. There is no edge from behind, and front. Good on trails and the approaches unsuitable for deep snow or a long walk in the cat. Climbing is quite a heavy (2 kg pair) and durable, the sole is rigid (does not bend almost by hand), there is a Welt at the rear and mostly front. Good for any technical work, not very comfortable on the trails. High-rise - heavy (2.5-3.0 kg of steam), warm (insulation or dual boot), the hard sole and the Welt. Not too good on the rocks, uncomfortable on the trails and in the heat.
trekking cats become ill due to the soft sole and the upper. Will only fit the mounting straps or mounting with the "glass" front and rear. But in this case, to use the crampons you will be uncomfortable (especially on steep ice) and if your requires the use of crampons, trekking as the main footwear is better not to take. Tall shoes relevant for a long stay at high altitudes (> 5 km) where snow and cold, you don't need it. Therefore, especially if you plan to continue in the future to hike in the mountains, it is necessary to focus on climbing boots.
Outsole. The material is better or SkyWalk (company specializing in the production of soles), own design manufacturers shoes usually worse. Geometry - boot or edge, choose depending on your style of walking. The boot allows you to walk better "way through", but it's harder to climb "misery". The stiffer the sole, the better to climb in the cats on the front teeth and kick steps in snow, and worse to walk on trails.
the Top. Material - cloth, leather or plastic. The cloth is lightweight and breathes well, but quickly get wet and abraded. The skin breathes normally, but, eventually, get wet. Plastic does not get wet, but not breathing and badly bent, inside plastic boot soft boot with insulation. Total, rag without Gore-Tex is excluded when walking on snow, and plastic relevant only when multi-day work in wet snow without a chance to dry out, otherwise it's heavy, clumsy and dampen.
the Lining is leather or cloth. Leather last longer, but worse breathing. GoreTex as an extra lining makes the boot completely dry after getting wet outer skin or clothes, it does not impair breathing boot (main still breathes from the top and the insole). GoreTex useful in all shoes except high-rise (in those conditions all the water still in the form of snow and ice), but significantly increases the cost of the boots and begins to work worse after a couple years of operation. Insulation (usually Thinsulate) is relevant only in tall boots.
Size. Take 1-2 size bigger than town shoes. I measure by a set of socks that you will wear in the mountains. Do not get too large in size (they are clumsy), but the tips of your fingers in any case should not abut the toe of the Shoe if you stand on the toes or on inclined surfaces (the load must fall on the region of the lacing), otherwise you will knock the fingers on the slopes and when walking in the front teeth.
Manufacturers and prices. The specific model I can not advise because of the individuality of possible operating conditions and the feet :-(. From the manufacturers should pay attention to Asolo, LaSportiva, Scarpa, Boreal. A cheaper version of the Soviet "Dobryninskaya" vibramy, but be careful - the design is bad and incompatible with many legs, it may happen that you will grate their corn until you throw.
the Second pair of shoes in the mountains - a very useful thing. Because and climb to Wade in the main shoes do not want, and in camp it is nice to remove the annoying boots, on trails and in heavy shoes walking not very pleasant. Thus, it is worth to take or lightweight running shoes, or Slippers. Only if it's sneakers, they must be really light (400-600 grams), but if Slippers, with a strap across the ankle, not washed away when crossing (and again easy). The third pair of shoes is overkill :-).
And last about the shoes - it is necessary to buy in the spring and not before going. And then you post them normally will be able (go to in nenaznachenii shoes is guaranteed to kill the legs), and in training you will feel much more comfortable than in shoes.
3. "Lanterns" (leggi)
So in over the top did not get the pebbles and snow, and needed "lanterns" or leggings (higher version of "lanterns" with a strap under the heel of the Shoe). Fixed a hook on the laces of the Shoe. Material - avizent or Cordura, lighter cloth will tear quickly, and not soaking through fully - just moisten. "Flashlights" also help to slow the penetration of water into the boot that runs down the pants down in the rain, and also when submerged above the ankle at the crossings. In hot weather wear is not necessary to improve the ventilation of shoes.
Glass (usually plastic) should have protection level 3 or 4. Rim needs to have side curtain and not allow much of the light of the nose. The more you plan to walk in the snow, the higher the requirements to the points. Welders ' goggles are cheap and cheerful, but with poor ventilation and are too dark (in the shade will be like hedgehog in the fog :-)). Branded climbing dark (Julbo, etc.) - lightweight, comfortable and expensive. If you require glasses with diopters, or it is possible to install shutters on the city sunglasses, or paste dark glasses with diopters in the "mountain" setting.
the Timekeeper must if you like to frequently look at the clock or ask other time - you are also required :-). It is advisable to take a waterproof and shockproof watch, otherwise they have a chance to survive until the end of the campaign. Casio G-Shock and sop. - reliable, but expensive. Do not take a watch with thermometer - measure the temperature of the hands :-).
5. The camera
If you take a photograph - it should get much easier to shoot a beautiful landscape or an interesting scene for himself, what hope for the rest. Specific models I will not recommend, this is the topic for another lecture. Do not forget to camera Fanny pack or other mounting so that he was always at hand. To carry your camera in a backpack is to miss most of successful shots. Well and an adequate number of tapes, flash drives and batteries - it's better to take extra than the whole limit yourself.
Synthetic is better in all respects, from natural materials should be abandoned. The concept of three layers - the base, warming and protective. The base (underwear) - tight to the skin and provides a microclimate (moisture and maintaining a layer of air). Heating - provides insulating capacity of clothing, it is often better to have several thin than one thick. Protective - doesn't allow the wind to blow warmth and protection from precipitation must be breathable, otherwise covered inside with condensation.
Choosing clothes, you need to keep in mind all possible situations in the campaign and to think of what clothes will you wear in a given situation. Bring your kit to ensure comfort in the most common situations. Plus a couple of things from the category of "the last argument" to wear when things get really bad.
Rate based on the line of route, in how many days you can wash your clothes and towels. The number of days and take stock of clean things, do not take supply of clean socks for 3 weeks of the campaign :-).
whether to Take certain things for sleep? If you want to optimize your weight - not to take. If you have the right clothing for you and her watch it in the evening after dinner she you warm, dry and relatively clean (the dirt and dust, as in Podolsk or Polushkina, in the mountains still rarely). So disguise it is not necessary, and when sleeping on the snow and do not want :-).
whether to Take spare clothes in case the main gets wet? No. If you go in the rain, clothes on you are most likely not very much - a base coat and protective. If a protective layer on you got wet, after setting camp, remove all the wet, put on dry clean clothes (or dry dirty clothes that you do not have time to wash :- )) and anything on top of the heating layer. No additional you don't need.
whether to Take separate clothes on the road and "civilization"? Only if it will not need to carry the whole trip. So find out ahead of time you can leave the Deposit in the firm, through which you drive into the area. If Yes - you can use this. If it can be done - do not take separate clothes. Of course, Hiking after the wash perfectly clean and decent, but nothing, "their" is already used, and local residents your appearance will survive :-). The only "but" - do not go to Central Asia to "naselenke" in shorts, you won't understand...
6.1 for the "oasis"
Should be light, output the moisture and protect from the sun.
On the head need something light and with a wide brim, otherwise you'll burn your ears and nose. "Arapatka" - gauze rectangle with elastic, which clings to the hat and protects the ears and neck. But in any case do not ignore the sunscreen.
it is Very desirable that it was underwear and not cotton - it and not so hot (due to the better moisture evaporation), and wet on the back from the backpack dries much faster. Long sleeve is not required and the extra weight, instead it is possible to do sunscreen. Check with the city that live to see the end of the campaign :-). As a variant - to take the second torn t-shirt and throw it after an acclimatization ring.
In the campaign you can do without it, but in "civilization" can sometimes be useful. If necessary, replace the shorts.
6.1.3 Pants windproof
Avizent, Taslan and other lightweight breathable synthetics. A universal thing, as is recommended in hot weather (when with open feet to go it is not necessary because the probability to fall down and peels or spiky plants) as well as more cold and windy weather. Not waterproof (although there may be membranous), in stores such, alas, are rare. A surplus of pockets and the presence of lightning on the sides - probably in less due to the weight. The back must be at least the hard parts so they will not feel under a backpack.
6.1.4 thin synthetic Socks 2-3 pairs
flexible, strong, thin, very breathable. Check out in the city on the wear resistance. If a good, thick socks in the heat can not wear.
6.2 standard weather +15..-5
it must be a little cold at rest and comfortable under a backpack.
6.2.1 polar fleece Headband
Usually the bandage is enough, if cold, you can wear or helmet :-).
6.2.2 Underwear t shirt
Provides great comfort with low weight. Do not take thick underwear, it should remove moisture and to maintain a thin layer of still air next to the skin, not warming - there is a second, warming layer. Thin can be used in a much wider temperature range. Preferably, volumetric weave of the fabric to provide better breathing and a greater volume of captured air. Material - only synthetic variant of the mixture of synthetics and natural fabrics are good for skiing and other situations where every evening you can hang out underwear on the battery. It is better to take model with long sleeves and collar "turtleneck" to avoid problems "cold" zones of the body.
6.2.3 Anorak polar-200
Better to have enough fitting the model to the motion under it does not "walk the wind". The desirable form-fitting cuffs and collar stoeckel. Variant of the anorak (short zipper) is lighter and warmer, but gives fewer options for ventilation in not very cold weather. A hood is not required - it is rather affiliation with a warm jacket.
6.2.4 windproof Jacket
it is Optimal to have a membrane coat (see description in section "clothes in the rain"). Unless finances allow, then any jacket of the same material, and windproof pants. Mandatory - it significantly increases the comfort in windy weather. Short or long zipper - like polarcom, variant of the anorak is good for the pocket-"kangaroo".
6.2.5 Underwear swimming trunks 2 pairs
Has the same benefits as Mike. Also should not be thick. Option of thermal underwear shorts marked increase in comfort.
6.2.6 Leggings microfleece or polar-200
Should be elastic and tight, especially at the bottom. Can be replaced with thick underwear. In a pair of windproof pants quite provide comfort to -10 (if not standing).
6.2.7 2 pairs of thick Socks
the Socks can be wool, but remember that the wool wears out quickly, so take a spare. - synthetics, more durable, wicks moisture better and dries faster. Choose the warmest model for trekking or mountaineering. Models for downhill and cross-country skis are not suitable - they have strengthened other areas, as they are optimized for a different movement of the foot in the Shoe. Socks should be high (to remove moisture from the Shoe), but not too much (otherwise in the area above the ankle will be hot and uncomfortable). Socks should be thick wear areas on the heel and sole and elasticated sections on the rise, so socks were tightly wrapped around his leg. The thread composition is usually mixed, the most common main components - Coolmax and Outlast. On top of thick socks (especially wool) can be put on nylon stockings to reduce friction (and thus wear) between the toe and the Shoe. Under thick socks definitely slim, they fit the leg better than reduce the chance of blisters. No need to wear two pairs of thick socks - the foot in the Shoe will be too unwieldy. Socks at night can be quite dry in the sleeping bag, so the second pair is needed only in case if the shoes wet and cold, and the ability to climb directly into the sleeping bag yet. Well, in case the first pair breaks (which is unlikely to be well received).
6.2.8 Glove polar or windstopper
from windstopper better protection from the wind and get wet more slowly, but worse fit a hand. Caution is advised to ski gloves and waterproof Chinese fakes. The sun can be hot, and when they do get wet, dry them have. Pay attention to the fitting of gloves, most manufacturers of pattern is very unfortunate. Mandatory tightening the elastic band on the wrist. Not insured and not culperate in polar fleece gloves, unless they have special pads - they are too slippery.
6.3 in the rain
Must be able to withstand at least 5.000 mm water column (20 is better.000), and either a membrane or a well-ventilated, otherwise condensation will reduce isolation from the "external" water, "no."
6.3.Membrane 1 waterproof jacket or poncho
If we consider the budget option of not breathing cheap cloth, poncho somewhat better than - better ventilation and more protection from water for the feet. But it is less convenient when driving on technical terrain (though in the rain for something serious to go still not worth it). Do not take a poncho that is worn over the backpack to put on and take off it is not very convenient, on halts same backpack is still without protection. I love ponchos of oilcloth fabric - it's hard, but it did not get wet.
In principle windproof anorak + poncho weighs about as much as a membrane jacket. But it is much more versatile, better protects from the wind and gives less condensation in light rain. Remember that on the back under the backpack, as well as in heavy rain condensation can still occur - in the first case, ventilation is hindered by the backpack :- ) and the second temperature difference may not be enough to output pair output. But the membrane provides a comfortable drying of the back at rest, when the backpack is removed :-).
Membranes come in three-, two - and single-layered. Three-layer - maximum durability and price, double-layer - better ventilation, a single - minimal weight and life. For our conditions are more suitable three-layer membrane. Market leader GoretexXCR, recently speak well of the eVent. Aquatex etcp. - get wet and not breathing :-). Technology Softshell (waterproof sealable layer) is more suitable for attacks for several days at temperatures near zero and for our conditions, probably, not very (at least to buy it to check this statement, I don't want :-).
When you select the jacket in addition to the type of membrane you should pay attention to the following things:
- all seams shall be taped and covered with a zipper or straps or watertight
- should be worn on the helmet to to twist the head
- must utgivelse so that inside would not flow water and not blow out the side wind visor hood should be regulated
- when you raise your hands, not have to "go" upstairs
- the cuff should be tight enough that when his hands raised over them water did not become numb
- pockets should be located so that they do not interfere with binding, 4 pockets (two internal and two external) is more than enough
- at the waist must be tight drawstring to isolate the upper part of the space under the jacket in cold weather
6.3.2 Membrane or waterproof pants
If the pants membrane, then they can replace and windproof pants, but there must be very attentive to the breathable properties of the membrane and to check them in Moscow. Heavy membrane model weighing under 800g is much stronger than the models from Paclight andp. but they can be hot below the snow line. Waterproof trousers-self-dumps - the good thing, as it allows to remove while wearing pants during a sudden rain :-).
6.4 for cold weather and rest stops/camp
Used in the camp (when filmed and physical activity is small), waiting at passage passes, and with global deterioration in the weather.
6.4.1 Warm jacket or second polarka
a lot of hard puff is not needed - it is certainly comfortable, but it can be done and much less weight. Easy sponge must fit under the windscreen, so as usual for weight savings they are thin breezy fabric. When choosing cheap sinteponovye note that it was thinner outer cloth and less any urban frills. Polarka with a lining of windstopper/windbloc completely replaces sinteponovye. Conventional polarka from polartec-300 is also quite suitable. The presence of the hood on these things is a plus, but not required.
6.4.2 Things from the category of "last argument"
are Selected depending on the route of the tour - the amount of snow, the heights of passes and overnight stays number of overnight stays on the glacier, and soD. Possible subjects: polar fleece hat, Balaclava or Balaklava; simple or insulated fabric Shoe covers; insulated/waterproof gloves/mittens/hat; the second polar fleece trousers; windproof mask. Do not get carried away - if you have one thing will serve only as and never will be worn for the trip, then it's bearable, but a few of those things are overkill.
what is required of you when you don't just go along the path, and overcome technical obstacles. A list of things in this category are fairly standard, virtually all (unlike clothes) have to take (well, maybe except sticks-telescopes). But you can win both the weight and the comfort/security through proper selection of models.
perhaps, the Only thing that safety comes first. Different helmets are designed for different purposes and many types of the helmets do not fit. We cannot deal with water and hockey helmets (made in the calculation of the head impact with an obstacle at low speed), motorcycle and Bicycle helmets (made in the calculation of the hitting the post and a long slide on asphalt), ski helmets (intermediate between water and motor + is still too warm), military helmets (focused on rebounding light object with a large kinetic energy), construction helmets (to protect from construction debris).
Mountain helmets come in two versions - thick plastic with elastic suspension slings and from the "Styrofoam" with a protection of thin plastic. The second option is more bulky, but better dampens the blow of that stone, which the helmet failed to send in the rebound. Mansion - Cassida a helmet: better closed the temples and base of the skull, but worse hearing, more weight and characteristics it is situated between the mountain ski helmets (hard strong). She's better designed for protection when falling on a slope, it can be worse to protect against certain types of stones.
When purchasing be sure to measure. The helmet must be firmly seated on the head, not to move down with head tilt and stay on the head in side impacts and snatch up the edge of the helmet.
simplify crossings on stones, improves balance on the moraines, absorb the load on the knees during the descent and allow you to use arm strength on the rise. There are two and three (the first is easier, but usually it is cheap, simple models), the handle is plain and the crooked, the handle or the tip may be a shock absorber. When buying, check whether they are formed under load, if'm quite unhinged by it without much effort after and not dangle/bend in the transverse direction. The construction of the castle - or eccentric collet Chuck (with collet check that it was at least the plastic parts). Tip - pobeditovye, rings or small removable.
as a budget option possible ski poles (but attached on they will cling to everything). Don't take ski poles - even a metal ski poles have a greater chance to break. When walking with poles, avoid situations when the stick gets stuck in the cracks between the rocks, and you slip forward.
3. The ice pick
Type - basic and technical (preferable). Length (for walking more is better for zarebnia and technical work - less). Weight (with lightweight comfortable to walk, with severe - to do the rest :-)). The shape of the beak is classic and inversion, pole - straight and bent. The curvature of the beak and the angle of sharpening: large curvature and positive angle for climbing, a smaller and negative for chopping steps. The ability to chop ice with a spatula. The convenience to hold the head and the shaft, the presence of rubber of the shaft and the knot (or possibly link). The presence of a hole under the carabiner and strap hole for lanyard. Budget option - the Leningrad ice pick (if you normally sharpen), Voronezh do not take.
frame Construction - soft (heel and toe walk freely relative to each other), semi-rigid (heel and toe are moved apart relative to the plate) and platform (rigid frame). Mounts are tough and the straps (put an order of magnitude longer). The rigid mounts from the front could be a wishbone or "glass" (plastic straps) and rear - frog, the handle or "glass". Soft cats come only with straps, platforms necessarily behind "hard mount. Mounting with the "glass" is more universal, but less rigidly lock the cat in the Shoe. Cats material - aluminum alloy do not take this cat to firn. The number of teeth (for our purposes at least 12). The distance between the first and second pair of teeth and the angle between the plane passing through the tips of these teeth 4, and a horizontal surface (what it is, the more steep the slope will be comfortable on your front teeth). The alignment of the front teeth - horizontal is better for firn and gentle slopes, vertical ice climbing and drytooling.
5. Personal screws
6. Binding + the lock and regulatory prussik
7. Carabiners 4 pieces
8. Of eight or more. safety/braking device
9. With the ascender sling
11. Stirrup for samovilata
12. Safety gloves
is Used on camps, halts and on the way to the mountains.
1. Sleeping bag
1.1 Liner in a sleeping bag
3. The seat
Passport, money, tickets, a notebook, a pen.
7. Cosmetic bag
toothbrush, comb, clippers, razor, a lighter.
8. Toilet paper
9. First aid kit
the band-aid, bandage, lipstick, cough medicines and throat, validol, ascorbic acid, a sugar substitute.