Membrane fabric

Membrane fabric

Membrane fabric (in everyday speech, sometimes referred to simply as membrane) is a kind of fabric that thanks to its particular structure, has vodootlivnoj windproof properties and at the same time pass through water vapor.

consists of several layers: wear-resistant top layer, soft bottom layer. And between them several protective layers of fabric and membrane.

The first commercial membrane was Gore-Tex, designed for use in space, Rowena Taylor, and Wilbert L. Gore and his son Robert W. Gore. Originally was protected by a patent, but once the patent term has expired, on the market there are other types of fabrics with similar properties.

Membrane fabric is widely used in travel products: from it sew jackets, pants, shoes make. The reason for the success of this kind of fabric is that the fabric membrane allows you to stay dry in the rain, while the body decomposes because of the lack of air.

What is the membrane?

The membrane is either thin film, which is laminated (glued or welded by special technology) to the upper fabric, or a special impregnation, rigidly applied to the fabric by hot way during production. The inner side of the film or impregnation may be protected by another layer of fabric.

Membrane fabric is fabric, which is windproof and/or waterproofing properties, while the normalized size of the membrane pores allows the material to effectively pass the evaporation of the human body (to breathe). Opposed to it — T. B. "oilcloth" that is absolutely not breathable fabric with polyurethane (PU) coating, normally used in the manufacture of tents and awnings.

Membrane fabric is used in clothing of the upper layer, the lower layers protecting clothes from getting wet. Structure membrane fabric allows your skin to breathe and remove the sweat to the outside. The higher the technical characteristics of membrane fabric, it is stronger and lighter in weight.
On the construction of the membrane, fabrics are divided into: two-layer, three-layer and the so-called "two-and-a-half"layer.

Two-layer fabric is the outer layer of the fabric to which the reverse side is coated with a special way membrane. This fabric in the product is always used with liner, K. lining provides complete protection to the membrane from clogging and mechanical damage.

Three-layer fabric looks like fabric with a fine mesh on the inside. This outer fabric + membrane + tricot bonded in one structure according to the special technology of laminating. Knitted mesh protects the membrane from mechanical damage and clogging.

"Two-and-a-half" layer membrane fabric is a material with new technology. This two-layer membrane fabric internally coated with a protective layer (protective foam coating in the form of a pimple), which performs the functions of the third layer, E. protection of the membrane. Clothing made of this fabric turns out light as much as possible and she doesn't need lining, and the weight of the protection is much less than that of three-layer materials.

In the production of modern high-tech clothing used membrane materials based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. By physical deformation of the Teflon obtained porous thin film that is applied to the fabric and is used when sewing clothes.

Theoretically, this will allow the fabric to stay dry in the rain, but the body won't rot due to lack of air. Membrane fabrics are widely used in outdoor activities as they allow high physical activity, in contrast to conventional waterproof fabrics (with PU coating).

In clothes from membrane tissue in any weather except the hottest wet, you can go without discomfort. Technical characteristics membrane fabrics are compared in accordance with the mentioned properties: what material breathes better, which is stronger andD. "Breathing" depends on water vapor permeability of the membrane (measured in g/sqm for 24 hours) - the higher the permeability of water vapor, the better the material "breathes". What is the working principle of the membranes? They have a chemical structure as a film with a pore size of several thousand times smaller than water droplets but more of a H2O molecule. Therefore, the droplet just passes through them. This ensures waterproofness. But water vapor molecules pass through the pores freely. When you sweat (hard work) there is a difference in partial pressure of water vapor under the jacket and outside. This is the driving force for removal of vapor, which is discharged to the outside. Such membranes are called micropore (Microporous).
Technical characteristics membrane fabrics are compared in accordance with the mentioned properties: what material breathes better, which is stronger andD. The resistance is determined by the pressure of a water column that can withstand a certain time the tissue with applied on its surface by a membrane -- the more resists, the better. In the jacket, which retains more than 6000 mm, you can walk in the rain (8000 mm --you can work quietly under a downpour 10000 mm waterproof jacket).
"Breathing" depends on water vapor permeability of the membrane (measured in g/sqm for 24 hours) -- the higher the permeability of water vapor, the better the material "breathes". It seems to be clear, but often when buying is the confusion due to the fact that different membranes have been tested in different ways. Suppose that two firms in the advertising materials in their tissues indicate that the water vapor permeability of 5,000 g/sqM. But one was held above the flask with boiling water and another with water temperatures at 36.6 deg. With - it is clear that the results will be different. And that fabric "breathe" differently. In continental Europe have been accepted as the ISO 811 test (for water resistance), ISO 9237 (windproof) and ISO 11092 (water vapor permeability). However, American, British (BS7209 WVP Index) and other European tests differ greatly. To correctly compare the results obtained when the same tests. And now sometimes you can see an advertisement for fabric that "breathes" with a mind-boggling capacity - 10,000 g/sqmm (read: per day flows through each square meter of the pair vikipedi 10 liters of water).
To micropore membrane longer served, it is necessary to wash clothes with special detergents. In clothing, uses this type of membranes, the top layer of the fabric by itself should have good water-repellent properties. This is because if the upper fabric is highly wet, the membrane will pass water (due to the fact that the inside of the upper fibres of the material are much weaker forces of surface tension and drops of water as such is not formed). It is therefore necessary to restore the water repellency of the fabric. In addition, no membrane will not "breathe", if on the surface there is a continuous water film or layer of ice. Therefore, restoring water-repellent upper material, it is important for all types of membrane materials.

STRUCTURE MEMBRANE TISSUE:

The pore size of the membrane does not exceed the size of water molecules, which prevents seepage of water inside, due to the fact that the pores in 20 thousand times smaller than the droplets and 700 times larger than water molecules.

In the form of a pair of molecules that are not connected by surface tension in a gaseous state, can pass through the membrane.

The tunnel-like pore structure divides the air flow mikrozavihreniya and is a barrier for wind (approximately as thick brush), allowing single molecules of water vapor (or gas, if you will).

Classification

World classification allows us to divide all membrane tissue into several classes:

Categories of the membranes according to the structure

According to the structure of the membrane, fabrics are divided on the basis of what is used: non-porous, porous and combined.

Non-porous membranes work on the principle of osmosis. The system is as follows: evaporation appears on the inner part of the membrane, okazyvayutsya on it, and by active diffusion quickly move to the outer side of the membrane. (Again, only if the driving force is the difference in partial pressures of water vapor). What is the advantage of non-porous membranes? They are mega durable, do not require careful maintenance, work well over a wide temperature range. Such membranes are usually used on high-end (expensive and most functional) products. What are the drawbacks? At first it may seem that the products get wet, but it's the kind of fumes that accumulate on the inside of the product. T. E. they begin to breathe more slowly, but advanced non-porous membranes, "rascacielos", sometimes breathable properties exceed the pore.

The pore membrane is, roughly speaking, membranes that operate on the following principle: water drops that fall on the membrane fabric on the outside, to pass through the membrane pores inside can not, because these pores are too small. The vapor molecules that are formed when You sweat from the inside of the membrane fabric are freely brought outside through the pores of the membrane (because the vapor molecule is thousands of times smaller than a drop of water, it can freely penetrate through the pores of the membrane). The result is a waterproof fabric membrane on the outside of the product and breathable (paratwada) properties inside the product. What is the advantage of the pore membranes? They quickly begin to breathe, E. derive evaporation as soon as You begin to sweat (assuming that there is a difference in partial pressures of water vapour inside and outside the jacket. T. E. when there is a driving force). What are the drawbacks? This membrane rather quickly "die", E. loses its properties. The membrane pores become clogged, which greatly reduces breathability. When improperly laundered, the jacket starts to leak. Especially strongly this disadvantage can appear, if You don't like to take care of your things (use a special DWR sprays, detergents for membrane fabrics, and so on D.).

The combination of the membrane – the outer fabric is covered with the inner side of the pore membrane, and on top of the pore membrane there is a thin coating (tE. non-porous polyurethane membrane film). This magical fabric has all the benefits of porous and non-porous membranes, while avoiding disadvantages. But high technologies have to pay dearly. Very few firms use this membrane in their products...

Categories of the membranes according to the construction
On the construction of the membrane, fabrics are divided into: two-layer, three-layer and the so-called "two-and-a-half"layer.
Two-layer fabric is the outer fabric, wrong side marked (a special way) the membrane (figure – all white, but sometimes transparent or with some other pigment). This fabric in the product is always used with liner, K. lining provides complete protection to the membrane from clogging and mechanical damage.
Three-layer fabric looks like fabric with a fine mesh on the inside. In fact – this outer fabric + membrane + tricot bonded in one structure according to the special technology of laminating. Why do you need knitted mesh from the inside? It protects the membrane from mechanical damage and clogging. And, most importantly, in the three-layer products, the use of pads is eliminated. In the end, we have: meganekko tissue + mobility + small volume products and high functionality. But, this is not a small money... However, as anyone, but for some people, the most important thing is comfort, and these people, in recent times, is becoming more and more. Patriotic snowboarder getting smarter... And stronger wallet.
"Two-and-a-half" layer membrane fabric is new on the market. Usually, this is an ordinary two-layer membrane fabric, inside covered with a protective coating (foam protective coating in the form of pimples, pimples or knitted and D.), designed to realize the function of the third layer, E. protection of the membrane. But such jackets are light – don't need lining, and the weight of the protection is much less than that of three-layer materials.

Classification of membranes as intended:

Windproof membrane
Usually applied to thin fleece fabric, providing a combination of warmth, breathability and venting. Unlike regular fleece, this fabric holds wind and warm even while wet, dries with active loads very quickly. The fabric may have a waterproof coating to withstand light rain. — most widely used wind-proof membrane. The membrane is not very expensive, can withstand many washings. This fabric is an optimal choice for winter Cycling clothing: felosztani, gloves, stripes on the ears.
Representatives:
  • Windstopper
  • Windbloc
  • Windtec and others.
Advantages:
  • Not blown
  • Warm even while wet
  • Dries quickly
  • Allow high physical activity
  • High durability
  • Low price
Disadvantages:
  • Little to protect from the rain.
Wind - and waterproof membrane
Used in the tourist jackets, pants, shoes and other accessories. Provide impermeability and narodowosci fabric while maintaining breathability. For a good performance of such a membrane must be covered with water-repellent impregnation, so that water is collected in drops and roll down, but not blocking the pores.
Representatives:
  • Gore-Tex
  • Sympatex
  • eVent
  • comforex
Advantages:
  • Not blown
  • Do not get wet
  • Allow high physical activity
Disadvantages:
  • The high price
  • Degrade over time
  • Not like doing Laundry

About sizing seams

Taped seams to avoid moisture penetration through the seams, and, as a result, feel dry and comfortable.

First let's talk about the seams in three-layer products. In these products the joints must, repeat, must be glued all! This standard, recognized by all manufacturers! Usually, You can learn more by reading the inscription on the label of the product: "all seams are sealed", which translated to English means "all seams taped". But still, look closely and check all the seams of a layered product are glued ribbon. I want to note that some, particularly relaxed company, there is a lack of sizing of some of the seams in the products of the three-layer fabric that is a shame and a huge drawback. The following condition, relative to the three-layer clothing is the minimum number of seams. The more seams, the more weight, the more nodes for gluing, the less mobile product. In the triple products of all these parameters is extremely important, K. the price of these products is quite high and implies that products are the most high-tech.

Currently, the majority of firms in the three-layer products using waterproof zips dry zipp. Using dry zipp eliminates valves or protective strips on the pockets and ventilation, which, again, saves weight and improves mobility products. In good dry product at the top of the zipp zippers are so-called zipp garage (castle defense in zipper garage to lock). In the absence of such "features" of water will be supplied into the product through a small opening at the top zipper.

Clothing from a double-layer membrane. About the seams: the inscription "all seams are sealed" means that all the seams in this product glued. If the label says "critical seam sealing", it means that the product only taped the main seams, which can result in leaks in some places, and it might not turn out. It is worth noting that in products that positioned the brand as semi-kataralny or semi-urban, this option is very acceptable (this is usually the product with insulation). Here, each buyer is free to choose what he wants, and what is suitable for him personally. If You spend a lot of time just hanging out with friends on the slope, then surely things with fully taped seams and insulation for You. How are the taped seams in double-layer clothing you can see in the photo.

The manufacturers of membrane fabric

Usually in top-end, three-layer or two-layer things worthy brands use waterproof breathable fabrics production companies such as W.L.Gore and Associates, Inc. (USA) (Gore-tex, Gore-tex XCR and D.), Toray (Japan) (Dermizax, Entrant HB), Event (USA, produced in Japan), Unitika (Japan). It is the leaders in technology of production of membrane tissues. Note, countries with a high level of technology!

Approximate figures

Water-resistant fabrics high-class is usually at least 20.000мм water column and breathability of at least 8.000г/m?/24 hours. Membrane secondary level usually have the characteristics of 8.000мм/5.000г/m?/24 hours or so. The basic level is typically 3.000мм/3000g/m?/24 hours, although the products from this type of fabric, is not high enough characteristics of the membrane can be well combined with the presence of a large number of ventilation holes to help regulate the temperature inside the product.

Water-repellent coating – DWR

Look at the droplets on the fabric do not soak, and lie on the fabric, rolling the balls! It's DWR (Durable Water Reppelence) surface, not allowing water to pass through even the top layer of tissue (i.e., absorbed into it). On fabric with DWR coating water, rolled into balls and rolled easily. DWR, by the way, piece not lasting, and eventually disappears (is washed away), and on the fabric appear wet (in contact with water). This does not mean that the product get wet, as the water still will not pass, but some discomfort may be present. The resulting layer of water on top will not work the membrane, no matter how steep it was. In addition, porous membranes, in this case, perhaps the passage of water through the membrane. To avoid dying DWR will help You with specially designed tools with that same DWR coating (NIKWAX, for example) that are sold in that sells extreme clothing.

About the texture of the fabric

Rip Stop is commonly used for top-end, expensive stuff. The name of method of weaving the fabric, which in its structure resembles a mesh or honeycomb. That is, in this texture are used both thin and thick filaments, which enables to produce durable and, at the same time, lightweight material.

Twill weaving is also often used in snowboarding clothes. It is pleasant to the touch smooth material (see photo before. section) having excellent strength characteristics. In the last couple of years, many, especially advanced brands have become in their collections clothes of jeans (Denim) with the membrane.

Types of membrane fabrics

SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF MEMBRANE TISSUES.

Omni-Tech Mini-Faille FD Ceramic
The technology in which the inner surface of the fabric (durable, textured, matte finish 100% nylon) is applied to the microporous polyurethane layer embedded in the ceramic particles, giving the cloth strength and an additional micropores, too small, so penetrating moisture from the outside, and large enough to pass a pair of moisture from the body to the outside. 11900 mm water permeability, a property of the fabric to "breathe" 8400 g/sqM./24h.

Amp-Tech Storm Dry Coating
The fabric, on which a layer of brushed nylon microporous polyurethane, and the inner surface of fabric - waterproof coating. Waterproof 5500мм, the property of fabric to "breathe" 5700 g/sqM./24h.
Scholler-Comfort-Temp
This technology provides a special lining on the inside of jackets, consisting of wax microclear and temperature regulating microclimate for the body.

Sympatex Transactive
This technology provides an increased level of comfort for people engaged in active sports. A completely new system of membranous tissue consisting of a Sympatex membrane and a water repellent layer prevents perspiration not only in vapour form, but in the form of moisture. Due to its structure, devoid of pores Sympatex Transactive ensures that the skin respiration is not impeded by dirt, salt crystals, particles of detergents and other external factors.

Sympatex Professional
Tightly United seams provide 100% waterproof. Extreme climatic conditions in winter require a maximum of functionality and efficiency. This is achieved through two - and three-layered materials are tightly connected with each other so that they provide 100% waterproof.

Pontetorto Dryfast
Technology against odor and moisture. Extremely light binding, which allows you to quickly pull sweat to the outside, due to the capillary properties of the material. Keeps the body dry. Antibacterial material which has been treated with a special disinfectant technologies and result in continuously neutralizes bacteria that cause unpleasant odor.

Schoeller Stretch, Schoeller WB400
Flexibility, wind protection and comfort when worn. Elastic-layer material Schoeller WB400 is a three in one fabric. The outer layer is made of elastic and synthetic fibers, guarantees full freedom of movement and protection from contamination. Waterproof second layer allows sweat to evaporate. Voluminous and dense inner layer with fleece, which retains warmth and provides comfort in wear.

In clothes from membrane tissue in any weather except the hottest wet, you can walk or run, climb on rocks, go skiing and not feel discomfort. In Soviet times, climbers and tourists had to wear canvas jackets that quickly become damp and quite heavy, compared to modern membrane jackets. In the 70-ies, when the Russian climbers came to American colleagues, those gave the guests a tent with awning printed on the Gore-Tex membrane. Russian climbers then long could not believe: how could it be that in heavy rain the tent did not get wet, and the steam from boiling on a Primus stove pan evaporates freely through the tent?! Membranous tissue are compared in accordance with the mentioned properties: which material is better "breathe", which is stronger andD. The resistance is determined by the pressure of a water column that can withstand a certain time fabric with membrane: the more resists, the better. In the jacket, which retains more than 6000 mm, it is possible some time in the rain is, 8,000 mm — you can safely work under a downpour 10000 mm waterproof jacket.

"Breathing" depends on water vapor permeability of the membrane (measured in g/m2 for 24 hours) — the higher the permeability of water vapor, the better the material "breathes". Often when buying an error occurs in the selection due to the fact that different membranes have been tested in different ways. Suppose that two firms in the advertising materials in their tissues indicate that the water vapor permeability of 5,000 g/m2. But one was held above the flask with boiling water, and another at a water temperature of 36.6°C. It is clear that the results will be different, and that the fabric "breathe" differently. In Europe accepted as the ISO 811 test (for water resistance), ISO 9237 (windproof) and ISO 11092 (water vapor permeability). However, American, British (BS7209 WVP Index) and other European tests differ greatly.

SOME TYPES OF TISSUE AND TISSUE-BASED MEMBRANES

Aerolite I: Fabric microfiber polyester, water-repellent and breathable, soft to the touch and silent.

ATX: "Breathable" membrane.

AWT OSMO-CERAMIC: This membrane has high waterproof and breathable properties that persist at all temperatures, typical of mountain conditions. In addition, this coating has the ability to actively remove the moisture that accumulates on the inner surface of the tissue, thus greatly reducing dangerous condensation during intensive operation of the skier and a large temperature difference. A ceramic cover component has the ability to convert ultraviolet radiation into infrared heat, thereby increasing the thermal capabilities of the product to +3 .

Berber: Material of 100% polyester. Dries quickly, has high functionality, is a lightweight material with high thermal insulation.

Bergundtal Cloth: The fabric is formed by weaving thread nylon-Taslan in one direction and plain nylon in the other. The durable fabric has water-repellent outer coating, the inner surface has a polyurethane coating for additional protection against harsh climatic conditions.

Boucle Ricciolo: Fabric consisting of wool and polyamide.

Channel Ridge Faille: Fabric, made of nylon-Taslan with irregular weave structure, which gives strength and durability. The fabric has a water repellent coating on the outside, the inside surface has a polyurethane coating for added protection.

Clarino Grip: Durable, non-slip material, covered with silicone. Used in the manufacture of gloves.

Climatec: Acrylic coating, with waterproof and breathable properties.

Comfort Control: Synthetic material used for the production of underwear. Capillary properties of which ensure the removal of moisture from the body surface, coated with Teflon provides maximum resistance to exposure to water. The fabric is protected from UV rays. The material has a windproof due to the dense inner weave of fibres, with no reduced ability to pass air. The fabric dries quickly, withstands washing and dry cleaning.

Coolmax: A new high-tech fiber. Maintains the natural body temperature due to the improved ability to excrete moisture and heat. Due to the structure of this four-channel fiber, moisture evaporates much faster. Products do not require special care, valid machine wash and drying.

Cordura: High-tech material, developed by DuPont, contains 100% nylon, with high strength and durability. The material has a double resistance to friction, has a high resistance to different mechanical loads.

Dermizax: Combines complete waterproofness and moisture to escape with increased strength without sacrificing smoothness and softness of the material. The resistance remains at the same level, regardless of the vigor and intensity of the movements. The property of a fabric to "breathe" and show moisture provides a unique non-porous membrane. The "breathable" properties of the membrane are able to grow when the temperature of the human body. This leads to the increase of the distance between the long molecular chains of the polymer membrane, which makes it more prohodimost for water vapor molecules. Mixing condensation to a minimum prevents the freezing of the inner layer and effectively complements property of the tissue "breathe". The membrane is not destroyed with numerous washings, making it easy to care. Waterproof 2000mm, breathability 10000 gr./sqm/24h.

Diaplex: A waterproof membrane material that can withstand 20,000 to 40000мм water column, changes the intensity of excretion of vapors through the separate parts of clothing depending on temperature, supporting the overall comfortable level of heat. Perfectly combines complete waterproofness and moisture to escape with increased strength without sacrificing smoothness and softness of the material. The property of a fabric to "breathe" and show moisture provides a unique non-porous membrane. Mixing condensation to a minimum prevents the freezing of the inner layer and effectively complements property of the tissue "breathe". High elasticity for ease of movement and vetrostojkost.

ZONE: The material is a microporous polyurethane membrane, it is also treated with water repellent, which fabric has high water-repellent ability. Waterproof 5000mm, breathability 3000 gr./sqm/24h.

Dry W.E.B.: This technology uses a multi-layer structure that absorbs perspiration, then quickly moves it to the outer side of the fabric, using the capillary process. Polyester on the inner side of the fabric removes sweat from the skin, and microfiber fiber polyester on the surface disperses moisture for rapid evaporation. Treated antimicrobial substance, this fabric protects from bacteria.

Schoeller Dynatec: High strength fabric (more durable than Cordura), known for its resistance to friction and abrasion. Resistant to rapid temperature changes.

Dynamonus: Reinforced Kevlar fiber, durable to wear and abrasion, tearing and cuts. Thanks to the basis of durable Kevlar and the addition of synthetic fibers, this material retains all the safety features and is stronger than steel threads.

Dyneema: Material features light weight, water resistant, reflection of UV rays, resistance to temperature, strength and flexibility.

DuraTech: Durable nylon with a tight weave of fibers with cross pattern. The material is coated with a waterproof and breathable membrane ENTRANT, and the outside DuroGuard water-repellent coating.

Duratex: 100% polyester with Climatec coating and DWR finish. 3000mm waterproof, vapour permeability 3000 g/sqm/24h.

Entrant Dermizax - EV3: Three-layer material, which as used Dermizax membrane is non-porous thin membrane having a high coefficient of waterproofness and breathability. The material has high resistance to abrasion and friction, so does not stretch during wearing. The membrane is not destroyed during washing.

Entrant GII: Three-layer membranous covering, the structure of which incorporates two different microporous layers. The fabric "breathes", which achieves the optimal balance between resistance and ability to pass air. This makes the material comfortable in use. Water resistant 5000 mm, moisture permeability 8000 g/sqm/24h.

EPIC: Membrane material that are inside the fibers, provides a "breathable" properties, protection from water and wind.

Fieldsensor: This washable material that dries instantly and is not wrinkled, permanently allows the fumes to be absorbed and discharged outside, while maintaining a comfortable state of the body.

GORE-TEX: The membrane is a microporous material bistructures, the past enlargement process. In this membrane, having micropores several orders of magnitude larger than the water molecule, and is several orders of magnitude smaller than any drop of water. So pass water only in vapor form that allows the material to breathe, but not to wet and not to crow. All seams of membrane with Gore-Tex are insulated treatment to ensure water resistance properties. Waterproof 10000mm water column, with a throughput of 1 liter of water vapor per hour.

Hidra-neK: Fabric has waterproof coating (8000mm) with good ventilation. The fabric is resistant to friction and wear.

High-Bulk Acrylic: Microfiber with bulky fibers that allow you to achieve a shirred effect at the microscopic level, at the expense of increasing the permeability to air and its ability to "breathe". The fabric has a high wear resistance, resistance to friction and abrasion To the touch the material is soft and pleasant, which increases its comfort.

Hollofil II: Four-channel fibers make up the structure of the material, filling it with properties of high insulation. The material is pleasant to wear and dries quickly.

Hydrаpel TF: This two-layer microporous material. In which the outer side of the protective layer treated with Teflon to increase water resistance. 2000m water resistant, water vapor permeability of 2000 g/sqm/24h.

Hydro Tech: Odrowaza durable fabric. 8000m water resistant, water vapor permeability 8000гр/sqm/2H

Hydro Tech 2000: The microfiber material. Waterproof 2000mm.

Intriplex-Ceramic: The material is non-porous ceramic membrane. Here, we used the principle of size water. T.E. the distance between the molecules is fundamentally more water molecules and less water droplets, while increasing the temperature of the body, these distances increase even more. The result is a membrane material that during active movements just produces more vapor on the surface of the garment while maintaining normal heat balance of the body. And therefore comfort conditions. 20000мм water resistant, water vapor permeability 15000гр/sqm/24h.

Isotex: The fabric is 100% not pass wind, the outer surface is covered with water-repellent coating. This is a hydrophilic material, E. it consists of chains of molecules that hold moisture and water through the fabric. When water molecules enter between the chains of molecules swell, and their ability to hold moisture and water increases.

Kevlar: High strength and durable material. Possessing high tear resistance, Kevlar is 5 times stronger than steel if you compare based weight on weight.

Koliv: The coating picks up moisture and brings it into the atmosphere, generates heat. This thermal energy allows you to quickly remove the moisture on the surface. As a result, improve "breathing" properties and moisture on the inside. The water vapor permeability of 20,000 g/sqm/24h.

Lemon Magic: Fabric with nylon and polyester. The permeability 9000гр/sqm/24h., waterproof 3000mm.

Membra-Therm: The material has a high resistance and good "breathing" properties. The membrane used in the manufacture of gloves.

Meryl: Fabric with elevated technical characteristics, has high waterproofness (8000mm water column). Due to the special structure of the tissue, the cavity inside the fiber, the lightness is achieved (25-30% lighter than nylon). This "breathing" is metronidiazole. The fabric features high strength, good insulating qualities which allow the body to keep the natural heat. The fabric requires no special care, after dries quickly, doesn't require Ironing.

Micro Grid: The material formed by weaving yarns of nylon and nylon microfiber.

Micro-Dry: The polyester fabric, specially designed for models with a down insulation, provides protection from the wind outside, removing moisture vapor away from heat, preventing wetting of the fluff.

Microsafe: Acetate with antimicrobial activity. Prevents odor for longer lasting freshness fabric. Gives a feeling of comfort.

MicroSuede: 100% polyester microfiber created by weaving thread that provides density of the fabric. Soft fleece, waterproof breathable coating Obermeyer hydroblock WB and external DuroGuard water-repellent layer that provides additional protection.

Microtachtel teflon: Material Teflon provides maximum water repellency and resistance. Water repellent and oil repellent coatings, UV absorption, easy to clean.

Moraine Faille: Fabric of 100% textured nylon with a water-repellent outer coating, the inner surface has a polyurethane coating for added protection.

NYLON TAFETTA: Durable abrasion-resistant material protects from wind and dumps the condensate out of the body. Quick-drying material with good properties air and having a water-repellent coating.

Outlast: Micro-thermal material, embedded in the fabric, which consists of millions of microcapsules capable of absorbing heat radiating from the body when heated, distribute it evenly and to return the warm cooling. If the body temperature rises, Outlast takes a certain amount of heat, restoring thermal equilibrium, and, at the same time, changing phase to liquid (melting). When the lack of movement body temperature drops, and the body becomes colder than the fabric, heat is transferred back to the body, restoring thermal balance. And Outlast changes phase to solid. Thus, Outlast not only keeps you warm but also removes excess, while maintaining the thermal comfort of the body.

Pemax: The fabric is composed of polyester and polyamide. Good water repellency.

Pertex: The collection of fabrics, working on four different areas: it pohudeniya fabric, windproof fabric, water-repellent materials and fabrics that protect from the sun. These fabrics are flexible, durable, elastic, retains original shape, light, comfortable and durable.

Polyamide: Artificial fiber having functional characteristics. It's lightweight, breathable, quick-drying and durable fabric that keeps its shape and does not require special care. It can be smooth, rough, Matt or shiny. RA - the official abbreviation of polyamide.

Polyester: Polyester is a generic name of polyester fibers and materials produced from melts of polyethylene terephthalate. It has high strength and wear resistance. It keeps the shape, not wrinkled, resistant to light, malogigroskopichen.

Polyester Microfibre: The fabric is made on the basis of microfibre polyester with high wicking properties due to the special weave of ultra-fine fibers.

Hyper-dX: Wear-resistant material, resistant to mechanical damage, is an excellent snow - and water-repellent material whose properties are retained after frequent washing.

Pile: Durable material that provides a particularly soft and pleasant warmth, protects from moisture and does not absorb moisture.

Q.B.TEX: Unique material having a coating with a billion tiny porous holes. Q.B.TEX has excellent characteristics of vodootlivnoj and water resistance, and breathability plaguespreader. Excellent material for ski clothes with excellent flexibility and ensures comfort and freedom of movement. Plaguespreader material (g/sqm/24h)-5000, the resistance to pressure of water column (mm)-2000

Solar Alpha: The fabric with the inclusion of these fibers absorbs visible sunlight, which represent more than 90% of the sun's energy and turns them into heat. In addition, it reflects infrared rays generated from the body and retains the heat inside the garment. These two functions are generated in one to create a perfect heat-retaining fabric. Composites of zirconium carbide used in the threads are good absorbers of heat.

Strata HD II: The microporous membrane. Waterproof 10000mm, permeability 10000 g/squarem/24h.

Stretch: Fabric with high water resistance (15000 mm) and breathability (10000 gr/sqmm/24h) with this durable and stretchy material.

Sympa Tex: Paratwada and waterproof membrane that is used as one layer in multilayer materials.

2-ply Sympa Tex: Two-layer material consisting of outer fabric (Stretch) of the steam and waterproof SympaTex membrane. Waterproof 15000мм, protodipoli 7000 gr/sqmm/24h.

3-ply Sympa Tex: Three-layer material consisting of dense and lightweight fabric on the outside, and paratwada waterproof SympaTex membrane and absorbent pads from micro. The membrane is secreted collects moisture and removes it from the body, while maintaining the heat balance of the body. Waterproof 30000мм, protodipoli 700 gr/sqmm/24h.

mSM 2,5 SympaTex: It microstations membrane, the development of which had been achieved following properties are easily fabric, enhanced wicking properties on inner surface and a thicker inner layer of an air layer. This resulted in a layer of air, which improved the heat insulation by 30%, has formed a lot of areas of pure membrane, which may trap condensate, do not have points of contact with the body. The main difference of this material from the three-layer 3-ply jacket is the structure of weaving fibers, they are arranged not in parallel and perpendicular to the membrane surface, which creates a layer of air, in addition to the vertical fibres improve absorbency for moisture and its ottimisti to the membrane for output to the outside.

Super Microft: 100% polyester, waterproof 2000mm, the water vapor permeability of 9000 g/sqm/24h.

Supplex: The fabric does not fade, is "breathable". Suplex was developed by company DuPont

Windbloc: The special membrane makes this fabric waterproof, windproof, but breathable. The fabric is quite lightweight and does not restrict movement.

Windstopper: Waterproof membrane material, 100% polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). Using the deformation of the obtained thin porous Teflon membrane. It retains heat, eliminates excess moisture in the atmosphere, maintaining the comfort of the body. The membrane is used as an extra layer between the lining and the top layer of knitted knitted clothes, are marked with Windstopper.

Windstopper Flees: Soft, thin material, with the addition of an additional layer of membrane, which provide improved thermal characteristics and high breathable properties. The membrane retains heat well. The material is twice warmer than ordinary fleece, prevents heat loss and increases comfort.

WindTech 2000: A layer of lightweight, elastic, wind protection WindhibitorTM fabric between two layers of MFS. Has good wicking properties and the capillary delays the wind.

XT: The honeycomb structure with micro pores generates effects of water resistance and breathability.

XT 2000: Waterproof 2000mm, breathability 4000 g/sqm/24h

XT 5000: Waterproofness 5000 mm, breathability 8000 g/sqm/24h

XT 10000: Waterproof 10000mm, breathability 8000 g/sqm/24h

XT 20000 Layer 3: 20000мм waterproof, breathability 4000 g/sqm/24h

XT: This coating penetrates into the fabric so that the fabric is like a honeycomb with a large number of micropores. These pores are too small to pass particles of water (this makes the fabric waterproof) but large enough to pass a damp evaporation coming from the body (this allows the body to breathe).

XT.L: Laminate XT.L Laminate is an ultrathin membrane that ensures an exceptional degree of water resistance, while allowing the skin to breathe. Also this membrane fabrics provides high level extensibility, which provides a safeguard against damage to the membrane even after prolonged intensive use and frequent washings.

Durability and efficiency

As a rule, the durability windproof membranes is limited by the strength and wear resistance of the base material. With careful use, the fabric can withstand multiple washings over several years without loss of properties.

In the case of waterproof membranes the situation is worse. It is believed that the good life road of the membrane — a few (2-3) years, and each time you wash waterproof properties deteriorate. After the water-repellent layer is washed away, the fabric in heavy rain is covered with a film of water and breathe not much better than the usual raincoat.

After several years of active operation even Gore-Tex starts to wet through under the heavy rain. However, this is true for ordinary oilskin jackets, under the same conditions. The degradation can be slowed down, periodically processing the old jacket impregnated, however, it is not a panacea, this will still be mold in the rain.

THE PROS AND CONS OF MEMBRANE GARMENTS

Pros:

  • It is easy and convenient;
  • Protects well from rain and snow, durable and lightweight;
  • It is not blown by the wind well and draws fumes out of the body;
  • It's perfect for not very cold weather and frosty;
  • Dirt is very easily removed, you can forget about washing every other day and to choose bright colors.


Cons:

  • The membrane is quite expensive;
  • Requires special care and proper washing;
  • Relatively short-lived;
  • Clothing under it must be chosen in a special way – + fleece or Polartec;

WASHING CLOTHES FROM MEMBRANE TISSUE

Clothes made from membrane fabrics can be washed the usual detergents. Washing powder clogs the porous structure of the membrane, which leads to loss of its specific qualities. The membrane in this case ceases "to breathe" - reduced properties air permeability. The same thing happens when using conditioners and bleaches.
Detergents which include chlorine and its derivatives, exert an action opposite to the effect of clogging the pores of the membrane fabric. Chlorine molecules have on membrane perforating action due to which it starts is better "breathe", but, as a consequence, to get wet. Thus, decreased water repellent properties of the fabric membrane.
It is recommended washing with special DWR sprays, detergents for membrane fabrics, and so on D.). Otherwise, it is possible to wash using liquid soap or baby shampoo.

Membrane clothes in any case can not be washed in the washing machine, do not soak, can not wring. It also has a negative effect on specific properties of membrane fabrics.

Soak products are not required. Generally, contamination of the fabric can be easily cleaned with hand washing. To prevent damage to the membrane wash is carried out manually at a temperature of 30-40 degrees. After the product is washed, pressed manually, but without twisting. To remove excess moisture, you can use very absorbent cotton fabric.
Drying products made of a membrane fabric

Membrane clothes drying in the expanded form in a horizontal position at room temperature. The room in which you are drying, should be well ventilated. Do not expose to direct sunlight to avoid burning the top layer of membrane garments.

SPECIAL CARE

Membrane clothing should never be ironed, as heat can damage the fabric structure.
To restore the water repellent properties of the fabric membrane outer clothing, use special spray on the basis of fluoride. Fluoride compounds allow you to create a water-repellent film that will not interfere with the movement of air. In addition, the film will impede the penetration of external pollution and increase the resistance of tissues to the UV light.


IMPREGNATION OF MEMBRANE GARMENTS

Membrane materials must from time to time to impregnate. For this approach various special sprays or liquids for washing. It must be remembered that it is only necessary to impregnate CLEAN clothes, after washing or cleaning. Different tissues may use only their own funds. Use aerosols and liquids for impregnation may lead to slight discoloration of the clothes. Regular use of impregnation will entail maintaining a good water-repellent properties of the membrane.

STORAGE CLOTHES OF MEMBRANOUS TISSUE

Membrane clothes store in the expanded form in vertical position. To avoid dust penetration in the porous structure of the membrane, clothes from membrane tissue should be placed in a protective cloth or plastic wrapper. Prior to storage of the membrane should be washed in accordance with the recommendations.

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