Camouflage and concealment

Camouflage (FR. camouflage — camouflage) — a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the subject.

Masking — a set of measures to reduce the visibility of its troops to the enemy, and the introduction of the enemy in confusion over the location of their fortifications.

Engineer reconnaissance before masking

The goal of engineer reconnaissance is obtaining the necessary data for making right decisions in disguise.

Intelligence determines:
Properties and the character of the area.
- The location of the object masking on the terrain and its telltale signs.
- Availability of scrap materials and local resources.
- Condition of observation of the enemy (the observation points, viewing areas and objects).
- Simultaneously with the production of intelligence is made calculation of forces and means on the masking objects.

Fighter in the CCE (France) camouflaged and disguised. For full protection is lacking headgear.

The infantry of the Army of defense of Israel in war paint and camouflage IDF olive and Woodland camo. The headpiece is called mitznefet.

The history of camouflage

Military clothing
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was sewn from fabric khaki only at the beginning of the twentieth century. In the late nineteenth century, British colonial troops in India adopted khaki, in the Persian language means "dust color". Form hacks used on the battlefield in the South African war with the Boers, 1899-1902 therefore soon it was adopted by the Russians and other troops and was widely used during the First world war.

In 1909 American painter Abbott Thayer published a book "Painting in the animal world" (Coloration in the Animal Kingdom). These principles served as the basis for creating a scientific theory of mimicry, and on its basis were developed the principles of military camouflage.

In 1939 the French artist of Russian origin Vladimir Baranov-Rossine patented combat fatigues ("pointillistically-dynamic camouflage", it is "chameleon method"). ="" p="">

All schematic diagrams of army camouflage drawings were developed for a specific area, which are fighters, with regard to regulatory requirements for camouflage in open terrain. Based on human vision in the daytime, which is the starting point in the preparation of color saturation of a picture, geometric design, contrast between adjacent fragments. All the armies of the world will sooner or later come to the use of camouflage drawings for the manufacture of military equipment, in order to protect personnel during the conduct of hostilities.

By the beginning of Second world war camouflage was widely used in all branches of the armed forces and taking into account the geographical characteristics of the place of the alleged fight. During the Second world used winter camouflage — white camouflage smocks worn over the uniforms. In the Soviet army camouflage uniform was introduced in the middle of the great Patriotic war for snipers, sappers, scouts and saboteurs. It was ghillie suits with uneven heels (in the form of the amoeba) brown or black on a khaki background, or green. ="" 1944="" p="">

Camo Flora
Camo Flora

After the war, the need to do camouflage uniforms almost disappeared. However, in the late fifties of the twentieth century in connection with military operations in Southeast Asia camouflage boom again took place. For the U.S. army then made 43 camouflage set, including: "desert", "forest", "jungle", "winter" and others.

The Americans used camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
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before the war in Vietnam, there was a camouflage "Decanter" used 2 armored divisions during "Operation Cobra", but because of the frequent cases of fire this camouflage was removed, was mostly confined to attach to their helmets twigs, grass, leaves (possibly because of the difficulties of discernment during their fighting).

In 1984 was created by "digital" camouflage: on soldiers, was dealt a figure similar to the configuration of pixels on the screen. This picture makes imperceptible the movement of the fighters.

The history of camouflage

Masking is an important tool for military tactics and one of the main varieties of combat support. The invention of gunpowder greatly facilitated the task of masking, because the smoke was inevitably discovered to the enemy the location of troops and indicated the purpose for which it is necessary to warm up. This explains why all European army so quickly switched to smokeless powder. With the proliferation of rapid-fire bolt rifles in the second half of the nineteenth century, the traditional practice of movement of troops on the front dense or closed ranks in uniform, made for easy observation of bright cloth out of practice. With the proliferation of machine guns and mortars, which can be easily and masking able to stop the advance of the enemy, the losses among the attacking troops was so high during the First world war, fighting passed the stage of trench war, when advancing troops to the front was possible only with huge losses to the attackers. Aerial recon has also forced all the belligerents to carefully mask artbatarei and rear military installation. Also to divert attention of the enemy from the location of the main forces of artillery began to apply a variety of demonstrations, false position and so on
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for spraying his counter battery fire. But, and it became necessary to be able to recognize similar measures taken by the enemy.

The battle of Cambrai

During the battle of Cambrai in 1917 of great importance in the preparation for surgery had a disguise and secrecy as to the plan of the British command attack
the offensive
the main type of military (combat) actions (along with defense and counter attack), based on attacking the actions of the armed forces. It is used to defeat the enemy (the destruction of manpower,...
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at Cambrai was to catch the German command by surprise. Haul tanks to the front in the evening, then moved his move to the front line. In addition to this, the British constantly were firing from machine guns and mortars, to drown out the roar of the tank engines. All of these measures masking in the end bore fruit. The German command did not know about the impending attack, despite the fact that shortly before the start of the operation two captured soldiers of the British army during the interrogation indicated the exact date of the start of the offensive at Cambrai on 20 November.

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