(from the French. camouflage — camouflage), camouflage coloration used in order to impede the identification of different objects by using visual-optical and photographic reconnaissance (the Great Soviet encyclopedia).
a Man hiding in a particular area, can be seen by other people or animals when he is stationary and when it moves. In the first case, the unmasking of the factor is in clear contrast with the surrounding environment, the second one the same factor and/or the displacement itself, a move seen by the opposite party. That unmasks a stationary person? Color that does not match with the surrounding environment, and the outlines of his figures, allowing to identify it as a goal and not an element of the environment. Camouflage works in both directions – changes the color of the object, and "merge" it with the atmosphere, and breaks or blurs the contours of his figures, removing from forms of symmetry, proportionality, accuracy, which is inherent in animals and humans. If easier is the goal of camouflage is to make man the plant (part), part of a field or swamp, a fragment of a wall or cliff, E. the subject, not a danger.
In the animal world widely "used" cryptic coloration and mimicry - protective imitation of other objects, a color or body shape. The most common form of this phenomenon is the imitation of inanimate objects, plants, and use this camouflage and predators and their potential victims. Some animals have the ability to change their color depending on the background on which they are located (chameleons, octopus etc.) is, of course, "aerobatics" of camouflage in the animal world. Other animals, such as hare, change colour, "season", during molting.
People use to disguise and , in particular, in camouflage fatigues, the same simple principles of protective colouring and mimicry.
COLOR. Color masking clothing – camouflage should not be bright, conspicuous, except in those cases when you are trying to hide on a meadow. A large number of very dark tones, black color can also attract attention in the daytime
The easiest – winter snow (white or white with dark spots) and night* (black or dark grey). In other cases, the color of the camouflage should, if possible, to match the environment in this time of the year. For the middle band. Early spring – white, gray, black. Late spring – saturated greens of different shades, brown, dark grey. Summer in the forest -- the predominance of shades of green, grey and brown. Autumn in the forest – dull yellow, brownish-red, brown, green. Late autumn – grey, black, brown, yellow. The city is various shades of grey and black.
the location of the COLOR PATCHES should smudge and break the silhouette of a man, well, if it is combined with loose-fitting clothes, which will further distort the contours of the body. This is an important moment in disguise, the human brain can recognize objects even in the details of the silhouette, for example, a spherical object of regular shape, at a height of 1 - 2 m above ground level, in most cases, attracts attention, is identified as the "head" and the brain is trying to "finish" located below this object to "body".
EXTRA ENTRIES DISGUISE. the Exposed areas of the body are masked, as a rule, mesh, gloves or special makeup (you can use soot, plant SAP, just dirt). If on clothing and headgear there are any loop holes sewn sling or a rubber band - you can add additional masking elements – twigs, grass, scraps and shreds of cloth camouflage color. Try to avoid this symmetry. Remember that the leaves on the branches, cut some of the plants fade quickly. Well remain during the day the branches of conifers, birch and oak. Of course, for masking you need to find the vegetation, which is common in this type of terrain. When active and prolonged movements do not use for masking large branches, running around the bushes is very noticeable.
ILLUMINATION. Well, when masquerading knows what lighting works best his camouflage – typically, the best results can be achieved in the shade and in the field with contrast and brightness where the sunlight "beams" breaks through the trees. Settling down permanently in one place, it must be remembered that the position of a shadow will change throughout the day. The sun behind your back, will create additional difficulties for the observer. Good masking factors are rain and fog.
DISGUISE MOVEMENTS AND SOUNDS. When you move you must use a shelter (the terrain, bushes, tall grass, fences, buildings). If possible, you should avoid dashes in a well-lit and open areas, while in ambush, do not make sudden, unexpected movements. If possible, cling to your move with natural movement of plants around you in the wind.. Not emit sounds for communication try to use the marks.
MODERN CIVIL CAMOUFLAGE hunters went the way of the most accurate reproduction on the fabric of the camouflage suit parts of the surrounding area. Hunter, wearing similar camouflage, aims to "merge" with a certain area, during certain times of the year. Such camouflage is highly effective, but not universal, move to a different type of terrain, usually unmasks the hunter.
MODERN MILITARY CAMOUFLAGE is more versatile. It was quite a long way from gear one "protective" colors (khaki, green, grey, sand) to complex, multi-color, universal camouflage, able to conceal on different types of terrain and at different times of the year.
Use the items multicolor camouflage military began during the First World War and after its end has been masking a serious disease. By the beginning of the Second World camouflage capes and already implemented in military intelligence and snipers of the red Army and the Wehrmacht. In the picture below camouflages used by the Germans in World War II, special forces (in particular, in some special units of the SS, the Luftwaffe, Wehrmacht - scouts, Marines, snipers).
the Second World War had convinced all parties that a multi-color camouflage - a necessity, not an exotic item of equipment scouts and saboteurs. went to the troops, and in the time since WWII, we have developed a large number of types and types of camouflage. Many of them are held and run in local wars. The figures below are examples of camouflage, divided into different types. Some of them combine the characteristics of several types. It camouflages European countries, among them there are forest, city, mountain, steppe and even desert camouflage patterns. This, of course, not all types, mostly modern, interesting and, most importantly, working.
the Lizard, a Tiger (Lizard, Tiger).
DPM (Disruptive Pattern Material)
Shrapnel (Splinter Pattern).
Rain, Haze (Rain, Smoke).
Flectarn (Flecktarn, flecktar, fleck).
*Night now offers protection against night vision devices, thermal imagers. Then use special camouflage fabric.