Camouflage - types, history

About camouflage
Camouflage, also known as coloring, misleading, in other words, allows a visible organism or object to remain indiscernible from the surrounding to blend in with the environment environment. Camouflage is a form of deception, protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets.

, is a means of disguise, allowing visible objects and organisms to be distinguishable from the environment

Capricorn-coloured rocky desert, almost invisible in the Israeli desert.

Fish-lizard (to the right of the green stone), Hawaii

Crab amid the seaweed on the beach California.

the Etymology
the Word camouflage comes from the French term camoufler, a Parisian slang meaning "to disguise", which in turn comes from the Italian camuffare, having the same meaning.
the Etymology of this word is probably connected with the notion of a "smokescreen". In the First world war the British Navy used similar technique of masking. Often to make it clear people are saying "Kamo", which means "to hide".

Natural camouflage
In nature, there is strong evolutionary pressure on animals, one needs to blend in with the environment and conceal their form to avoid the attack of predators; others should blend in with the environment, to be able to sneak up on prey. Natural camouflage is one method that animals use to make it. There are several ways to do this. One of the variants vpisatsya surrounding landscape, and the other is to disguise itself as something uninteresting or something dangerous.
There is an interaction of the evolving capacities of animals being beneficial to be able to detect hidden animals. Various aspects of camouflage and sensitive abilities can be more or less summed up in the form of a particular pair of predator-prey.

some animals have a way of masking, which consists in changing its color depending on the environment: by changing the color or texture of the environment, they are able to change its color. There are seasonal changes in color of the coat (ermine, hare, T.p.) and quick color changes of the skin (chromatophores) occurring over short time periods (cephalopods).

Some animals, especially in aquatic environments using a method of hiding their odors that can attract predators.

Some herd animals behave and accept the view that it was difficult to distinguish from the herd. Examples are the stripes on the zebras, and scales of fish.

Protective coloring (or erasing camouflage), the use of different colors on upper and lower surfaces to change the gradation of tones from a light belly to a darker back, is common in the sea and on the ground.

This is sometimes called Thayer's law, after Abbott H. Thayer, who published a paper on the form in 1896.

Fish lost in the background of coral

Masking color
This is the most common form of camouflage, of all varieties. The easiest way for the animal to have a color similar to its environment.
Examples include "landscape painting" deer, squirrels, or moles (to match trees or dirt), or the combination of blue skin and white underbelly of sharks via a protective coating (which can be difficult to identify from the top and bottom). More complex patterns can be seen in animals such as flounder, moths, and frogs, unlike many others. Some forms of camouflage contrasting use Zastrahovannoe to smash a visual diagram of how a Seagull or Zebra.

the Type of camouflage depends on several factors:
• environment in which the animal lives. This is usually the most important factor.
• Physiology and behavior of the animal. Animals with fur need different camouflage than poultry or fish. It is clear that animals that live in groups have a totally different camouflage techniques than those that are secluded.
• If the animal being hunted, the behavior or characteristics of its predator affects the behavior and camouflage the animal. For example, if the predator is a colorless vision, the animal will not need to match the color of their environment. and will also apply a colorless types of protective coloring.

Animals are painted in two ways:
• Biochrome — natural microscopic pigments that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect it, creating a visible color that is suitable for protection from its main predator.
• a Microscopic physical structures that act like prisms to reflect and scatter light to produce a color that is different from the skin, as a translucent fur of the polar bear, which actually has black skin.
Camouflage coloring may very well be changed . This can be caused by just the change of seasons, or it may be associated with more rapid environmental changes. For example, the Arctic Fox has a white coat in winter and brown fur in the summer. Mammals and birds use a new coat and a new set of feathers, respectively, but some animals, such as cuttlefish, have a deeper level of pigment cells, called chromatophores, which they can control. Other animals, such as some types of fish or golosemennye can really change your skin color, changing your diet. However, the most well-known creature that changes color is a chameleon. He does it as a rule, not for camouflage purposes, but to Express your mood.

tabby cat, mixed with the autumn nature.

the Difference color one part of the body are often helpful in camouflage. This can be observed in ordinary domestic animals such as striped cat. Stripes on the body of animals such as tigers or zebras that help them blend into their environment: jungle, fields. Looking for Zebra, you may think that their coloration does not match their habitat. But, as they are hunted by lions and tigers, usually color-blind until they can't tell the difference between orange and green, the Zebra is enough to have monochrome color bands, in order to merge with the surrounding nature. Also in the case of a zebras stripes are mixed together so that a herd of zebras is similar to one large mass that prevents the lion to choose one individual Zebra. This same concept is used by many striped fishes. Among birds, for example, Canada goose create a cluster in the tall grass and look if it sticks, not the heads of birds.

beetle "green Anol" uses mimicry, pretending to be a leaf.

Mimicry is when an organism simulator, it receives signals through an external adapter and take the appropriate form of environment. The model is usually another species, or less its own type of simulator, including automimicry, where one part of the body bears a superficial resemblance to another. For example, among Arctic animals is very often observed, the white color of the body. Some — in all year round: polar bear, snowy owl, Greenland Falcon; others, living in areas that are released for the summer from the snow, the brown color changes to white only the winter: the Arctic Fox, ermine, hare. There are different types of mimicry: mimicry of form, color, collective mimicry, convergence.

the Benefit of such adaptations is obvious. This method of masking is widely used in camouflage.

Although mimicry is the most obvious and convenient for use by people in camouflage, but you can also use olfactory (smell) or auditory method of disinformation. That is, the more types of signal used by the mimicry, the greater the likelihood of not detecting the enemy. Mimicry differs from camouflage in which the object simply disappears. Here he simulates various types of environments or objects. In terms of evolutionary biology, this phenomenon is a form of co-development involving an evolutionary arms race. The simulators can be of different types during different stages of their life cycles, or they may be polymorphic and imitating other models. The individuals can be more than one initatory the course. The most famous simulators insects, although there are many other simulators, among other animals.

Military camouflage

as a means of camouflage, in the early stages of the development of Western civilization was not used in the army. Army of the 19th century tended to use bright colors and bold, impressive images. These were intended to daunt the enemy, attract recruits, or to allow the easier identification of soldiers in conditions of poor visibility.

a Modern example of military camouflage.

Camouflage has become an essential part of modern military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons during the 19th century. Despite the demonstrated value of camouflage until the 20th century armies tended to use bright colors and bold, impressive designs. They were meant to scare the enemy. Only when in one of the battles, uniforms long bundles of hay helped the soldiers to remain unnoticed, it became clear that it was necessary to make changes in clothing.

Example of common camouflage

the Bronze Horseman, hidden from German aircraft during the Siege of Leningrad (August 8, 1941)

United Kingdom

In England a group of gamekeepers in the 17th century were the first to use gray colors. Was later the 95th Regiment, which was created during the Napoleonic wars to strengthen the British infantry line. The soldiers were jacket in stark contrast with scarlet tunics. The British in India were forced to dye their white summer tunics to neutral tones, initially a dirty brown called khaki (from the Hindi-Urdu for "dusty"). But it was only a temporary measure, and has been applied in the Indian outfit in the 1880s. Only in the Second Anglo-Boer war, in 1902, the uniforms of the entire British army were standardized on this grayish-brown tone.


Other armies retained brighter colors. At the beginning of the First world war, the French wore red trousers as part of their uniforms. But at the beginning of 1915 the changes began. The French army also adopted a new "grayish-blue" jacket. The Belgian army started using khaki uniforms in 1915.
organized by the French Section de Camouflage (Camouflage Department) in 1915, the first time headed by Eugene Corbin and then by Lucien - Victor de Giran Scevola. These experts were, for the most part, painters, sculptors, artists. Technological limitations did not allow to mass-produce the first versions of camouflage uniforms during the First world war. Each uniform was painted manually. Many efforts have been made to conceal large items of equipment and important facilities. By mid-1915 the French section had four workshops (one in Paris and three closer to the front), where is mainly produced camouflage nets.

Other countries

United States first applied the green camouflage in the civil war, but then followed by the British, entering khaki in the same year. Russia has partially started to apply in 1908. The Italian army used grigio-verde ("grey-green") in the Alps from 1906 and introduced fully in the army from 1909. The Germans adopted feldgrau ("field grey") in 1910.

War of the 20th century

Group of developers who were artists, designers or architects in civilian life were also largely used by the forces of the United Kingdom (Camouflage Section, collected at the end of 1916) and the U.S. (new York Camouflage Society, collected in April 1917; official Company A, 40s Engineers and the Women's Reserve Camouflage Corps) and to a lesser extent by Germany (from 1917, see for example , Diamond may be the first printed camouflage), Italy (Laboratorio di mascheramento, built in 1917), Belgium and Russia. In 1917 the word 'camouflage' entered the English language.
Camouflage helmet, was popular, but not produced commercially until the Germans began in 1916 to issue Stahlhelm (steel helmets) in green, brown, or ochre. Serial production of camouflage fabrics was started shortly before the end of the war. Also used the cover standard outfit natural vegetation or with coloured fabric strips.
the Troops, especially the snipers, used a variety of camo options, including the masking veil for the head and arms, hand painted overalls and a canvas covered with mesh.

Camouflaged helmet model World war 1.

the First mass-produced military camouflage material was the Italian telo mimetico ("mimetic cloth") pattern of 1929, used to cover the trenches. This idea was copied by the Germans in 1931, but with her own camouflage story. In 1918, the Red army has released disruptive "amoeba" - variant was used by snipers from 1937.

Massovoe manufacture camouflage fabrics began during the Second world war. Initially, was a sign of elite groups, and the captured camouflage uniforms were often used by the enemy.


  • the Germans experimented before the war and some army units used specimen "the shard". Professor Johann Georg Otto Schick experimented with different samples of uniforms of the Waffen-SS in 1935
  • Platanenmuster – "sycamore bark" (1937 - 1942) – spring/summer-and autumn/winter camo
  • Rauchtarnmuster – "stained edge" (1939 - 1944) – spring/summer-and the autumn/winter changes
  • Palmenmuster – "palm tree" (about 1941–?) – autumn/winter camo
  • BeringtesEichenlaubmuster – "leaf oak" (1942 again 1945)
  • Eichenlaubmuster – "the oak tree covered with foliage" (1943 - 1945) – autumn/winter camo
  • Erbsenmuster – "peas" (1944 - 1945) –autumn/winter camo
  • • Leibermuster (1945)
  • • And also telomimetico ("mimetic cloth"), using fabric seized from the Italians in 1943 (Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler often wore this pattern).

German military tent with 1931.

Sample (autumn/winter camo)

Sumpfmuster (" marsh surface") is a camouflage of the "Wehrmacht" and was introduced in 1943. In 1944 changed.

United Kingdom

Developed in the 1930s, uniforms colors started to be widely used in 1939 With the outbreak of war were restored camouflage research. The British create a Camouflage Research and Training centre in 1940. in the Castle of Farnham, in Surrey. The initial staff included artists from the Industrial Camouflage Group, such as the way they look on Roland and Frederic Mountains and Jasper Maskelyn (later known for the development of camouflage for the North African campaign).


In July 1944, American soldiers wore uniforms with a pattern "herringbone". This camouflage was first used Marines in the Pacific, but was not used in the European theater of operations because of the similarity of the uniforms of the Waffen SS.
the army corps of engineers the U.S. army began a comprehensive experiments in 1940 but before 1942 there was still little development, when General Douglas MacArthur demanded 150,000 camouflage uniforms for operations in the jungle. A 1940 design, dubbed the so-called "dollar test" or "leopard spot", was chosen as the camouflage pattern for a pair of overalls in the conditions of the beach/jungle. It was originally used by the U.S. Marines fighting on the Solomon Islands. Experience in the practical use has shown that that this type was unsuitable for the infantry, and its production was stopped in 1944. with the return to standard uniforms of one tone.

back In 1944 specialized teams of the 2nd Armored Division serving in Normandy were equipped with uniforms patterned "skin of frog" and "leopard spots", but great similarities with the military uniform, which was worn by troops of the Waffen SS , led to several incidents when the fire was opened on his troops that led to the cancellation of this type of camouflage. The so-called"leopard uniforms" continued to be worn USMC Amphibious reconnaissance battalion.


the Old uniforms continued to be used until the end of the 1950s. But during the Korean war (1950-53), troops had found the existing combat uniform inadequate: it was too hot in summer and not warm enough during the cold Korean winters. The soldiers still wore the old uniform of Jungle Green (JG) for hot weather and winter. Needed warm clothes lined with fur. The decision was quickly made, and by the end of the Korean war was released windproof and water repellent combat uniforms of gabardine. The trousers retained the old style, while the jacket had several pockets, lining and lever. The uniform was produced in a greyish green colour (OG), similar to the United States.
sobsey end of conscription in 1961, the army began to need a new form. Needed something more convenient, but relevant to military uniforms. Based on the experience of the Korean war, have developed new types of uniforms, more high-quality tailoring, with a lining above the waist and linings for elbows. The 1960s were a transition periodon for the army, and this was reflected in the changes that have occurred in the uniform of a soldier.

Disruptive camouflage

By this time the army could afford to supply every soldier with his own camouflaged uniform. Samples, based on the design of Blouses of Denison, were developed in 1960 and called Disruptive Pattern (DP). This camo better known by the name given to fabric used in sample: Disruptive Pattern Material (DPM). In the late sixties it was used in limited quantities in jackets and pants. Thus Britain, the first country in world to introduce regular troops in camouflage combat uniforms. Known as "66", it was soon replaced by "To 68" , which was slightly revised camouflage design primarily full lining for jacket and trousers. DPM has become the official camouflage uniform for army.
modernization of Different uniforms since 1984 changed the size of the color tones, but DPM is always easily recognized, and continues to be effective. Many countries around the world use it or variations.
Material disruptive camouflage (DPM) camouflage pattern used by British forces and many other armies worldwide, particularly in former colonies. Direct copies or modified DPM was used by Canada, Jordan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates.
Main forest type with four colors: sand, green, brown and black. There are also two-color variant of the desert brown and brown.
Not to be confused with Australian camouflage uniform.
the British army used explosive type of material for the famous Denison Collection, released to equip the parachute castas early 1940s. The first examples of this design were painted by hand.
In British DPM was developed in the 1960s, and in 1966. In the army it was the first ever camouflage blouse and trousers. They replaced a simple olive green uniform of the 1960s. The British army was the first, which has equipped its troops universal camouflage uniforms.
In the design of the DPM sample 1966 used the four basic Western European temperate colours of black, dark brown, green and dark sand, to get a very effective camouflage that has survived in its basic form, with slight changes of colors, up to current times.
Before the regimentals of the sample of 1966 was extended to all units, slightly revised the design of the garments and fabrics DPM was introduced in 1968 as the type of form 1968.
Fabric sample DPM 1966 changed slightly until 1968.
Occurred following minor changes: the sample in 1984 fewer points, and brown is much darker; 1990 and later has a group of new and smaller sized forms, 1994 orange color instead of brown. The DPM 95 (CS95) clothing type has a similar color in uniform 1966.
Although small changes were made in DPM, but also the color and the type is easy to learn. There are also versions of DPM for jungle , where the colors are more bright and more dark brown than green. In DPM for the desert - only two shades, because the version with four colors of the desert has been used by some middle Eastern countries, especially Iraq.
Since 1990 a system of Personal Load Carrying Equipment (PLCE), it was initially produced in olive green. Olive camo type was quickly replaced in production by a DPM version, and now almost all British ribbon and rucksacks - DPM.
Issued DPM equipment is IRR (infra red Reflective). This coating has a specific reflective wavelength in order to blend in with natural colors in the spectrum of infrared light. This reduces the visibility of soldiers with night vision devices that detect infrared light, since trees and other green plants reflect deep red and infra-red light (the wood effect).


Many sets spotted leopard uniforms were sold to allied States, renovated its armed forces. Desantnikami worn by the French during the First Indochina war, camouflage "leopard spot" was later implemented in grajdanskoi society under the name of "duck Hunters".
the CIA supplied the camouflage "spot the leopard" and "duck hunters" for Brigade 2506 Cuban exiles during the invasion of Pigs and South Vietnamese and Montagnard Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) protivoprotosana, until the sample was replaced with "tiger stripes" pattern in the mid-1960s. [H Blechman, 2004].
During the Vietnam war American troops were equipped with camouflage sole in the dim shade of green to blend in with the jungle. Since the late 1950's USMC camo was released with some changes. This camo color was brown “brown clouds” and on the green of the jungle, with a jagged “wine leaf”. The green Berets took a sample of Vietnamese "tiger stripes" with its distinctive horizontal sections of black, green and brown. Although this style became popular among the troops, it was not an official government uniform. She proizvodilas civil tailors in private.

American Woodland camo

Four American camouflage pattern, designed in 1948 Research laboratory (ERDL) based at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, was used during the Vietnam war. The ERDL pattern, was first issued to elite reconnaissance and special operations units in early 1967. It was originally made out of a dominant combination of colors, consisting of large organic shapes, green and brown, black accents and light green highlights of the leaves. Known sample of two: "Lowland" and "Mountain". Brown "Mountain" version was adopted as the standard United States Marine Corps (USMC) from 1968, and later introduced on a wider scale in Southeast Asia by the U.S. army, and, by the end of the Vietnam war, became the norm. After the withdrawal of troops of army of the USA from Southeast Asia in 1973, camouflage clothing was no longer produced, though the 1st Battalion 13th infantry regiment in Baumholder in Germany wore a camouflage type of "Lowland" in the early 1970s as an experimental. The USMC continued wearing a variant of "Delta" ERDL pattern that was issued in the mid-1970s. Only in 1981, the American headquarters has approved another camouflaged uniform (BDU) in M81 forest type. This is based on the Vietnamese period brown dominant ERDL, but enlarged (by 60%) figure, and with thicker black shadows option "Delta". The sample was designed primarily for use in Europe. In the next two decades it was the standard type of camouflage for all American troops. Olive drab uniforms were gradually introduced, so that by the time operation "Swift Fury" in Grenada in 1983, all participating units were dressed in M81 BDUs.

American desert

the Formation of "Rapid Response Forces" (RDF) in 1979, her field of interest to work in the middle East and protecting American interests in the Gulf region, identify the problem first American camouflage clothing for the desert, six color Desert Battle Dress Uniform (DBDU), which were originally developed in 1962. The main type is light brown in color, with superimposed broad patches of pale olive green and wide two-tone stripes of brown, as well as groups of black-and-white spots scattered in tissue, the so-called "chocolate chips". This type of camouflage used in military actions in Egypt during the 1980s, and by the peacekeeping forces in the Egyptian Sinai. But the experience from practical use, it became clear that this design contrasted with the landscape. It was also found that the dark region of tissue is heated more than the paler parts under the sun in the desert, and preserved a high temperature for a longer time. Find out how to recycle fabric was also more expensive to manufacture than three or four color, and thus began the search for a replacement. Samples were taken of the sand and earth from the Middle East, and measured for optical and infrared reflectance. On the basis of the conducted research were produced seven samples for the test. The samples were tested at fourteen different sites in the desert and the chosen one, the most successful. The resulting camouflage for the desert type was standardized in 1990, but he was not ready before troops landed in Saudi Arabia during the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991. So in the beginning of the campaign, American troops wore six color DBDUs. Only when ceased, was delivered the first batch of the new camouflage. The form, officially issued with the new Desert Camouflage Uniform (DCU) in 1993, consisted of a thin mixture of large pastel green and light brown patches, with sparse, narrow, reddish brown patches are derived from this informal name of ”Coffee Color". This species has been used for over a decade, primarily during the invasion of 2003 in Iraq. Currently this sample is replaced by a variety of digital pixel samples.

Camo desert pattern "chocolate chip".

Digital camo is the pattern designed using small microsamples, in contrast to the large macrobrachium, for the effective violation identification. From 1978 until the early 1980s, American 2 motorized regiment, stationed in Europe used a digital camouflage on vehicles. During 1979 and 1980, the Australian army experimented with digital camouflage on the helicopter.
Later, digital camouflage clothing was adopted by the canadian forces (CADPAT), the marine Corps of the United States (MARPAT), United States army (Universal Camouflage Pattern), the Italian army (Vegetato) and much of the armed forces of Jordan. The South Korean army recently, possibly in August 2006, began to use digital camouflage, which is similar to USMC MARPAT. In 2007 the Finnish defence forces introduced a digital camouflage M05. In mid-2007 the Chinese people's Liberation army has introduced digital camouflage Type 07. German and Danish armies today use camouflage that uses dots instead of spots (flecktarn). This type of camouflage is particularly effective when operating in the jungle or forested areas.

CADPAT is an example of digital camouflage pattern

Camouflage for transport

the Purpose of the use of camouflage for vehicles and large equipment is to hide them from the main threat is aerial reconnaissance: fighter jets, spy planes or satellites. The most important task is to hide the characteristic shape of the vehicle, which can be identified from the air. Drape a camouflage net on the vehicle is not enough for this: add tree branches and objects that distort the shape under the net to hide the characteristic rectangular shape.


Camouflage vehicle.

Before the 20th century, naval weapons had a very small range, thus was unimportant for ships; the crew on Board also had no need to camouflage. The colors of the uniforms were selected on the basis of ease of maintenance or aesthetics. But at the turn of the century uvelichivaetsya range interactions during sea battles, as was demonstrated in the battle of Tsushima, was caused by the introduction of the first version of camouflage in the form of some pure shade of gray, under the assumption that the court will become invisible in the fog.

Ship-trap of the First world war is disguised by dazzle camouflage

During the First world war, the spread of submarines and their effectiveness has led to the emergence of camouflage, distorting the appearance of the vessel. This type of camouflage was intended to break up the appearance of the vessel so that its identity, Thomas and the superstructure could not be easily determined. We also used the coloring in the false wave on the bow of the vessel so that its speed was too high.

In 1940 the United States Navy introduced several camouflage measures designed for different vessels and situations.

• Measure 1 was the dark grey everywhere except the white superstructures above the deck level.
• Measure 2 was dark gray on the hull and light gray on the upper superstructures and turrets.
• Measure 4 black was everywhere. It was intended for night operations, but found that even the very dark nights, black ships were more noticeable than gray.
• Measure 5 there was a false head wave.
• Steps 7 and 8 was used to make cruisers like the destroyers.
• action 11 was the color in the color sea blue overall, including the decks. This measure was used in the Pacific and the Mediterranean, to escape the aircraft.
• step 12 there was color in dark blue or dark grey the bottom of the hull, ocean gray at about the main deck level, and a gray or pale gray above. The boundaries between colors were blurred.
• Measure 13 was the color of fog, grey everywhere. It turned out to provide reasonable protection in the widest range of conditions and became a standard paint scheme after the war.
• Measure 14 the ocean was gray everywhere. This measure was widely used on ships.
• Measure 16 was among white large polygonal areas color light blue sea. It is very suitable for the North Atlantic.
• action 21 was Navy blue overall, including the decks. This largely replaced measure 11.
• Measure 22 there was color in dark blue lower part of the body, painted in grey colour of mist. She was the most popular measure, as it has assessed the distance to the vehicle very difficult.
• action 31 a sample style army green, Browns and Grays used by smaller ships like landing craft or PT boat, working close to the shore.
• Measure 32 was a mixture of polygons in dark blue, various grey and green.
• Measure 33 was a mixture of polygons of different grey and lighter green. It is well suited to Northern waters.

In measures 11 and 21, all decks were painted a blue-gray tint.

Between the wars, British naval vessels were generally dark gray in Northern waters and light gray in the Mediterranean or tropical waters. During the war the Admiralty had introduced various standardized camouflage scheme. British decks were usually dark gray.

Royal Norwegian marine boat in camouflage type "splinter"

marine corps Court before the war were either light gray completely, or had a dark gray body. Many retained this scheme during the war. The other was a camouflage dazzle, usually in combinations of pale gray, dark gray and blue sea. Smaller vessels were painted in pale gray, to blend in with the fogs of the North European waters. Larger ships often had their own versions, and drew a different hue depending on the rest of the body. German decks were dark gray.
Mussolini's Navy retained its pre-war scheme of light gray color everywhere for vessels of small size, but large ships was mainly the dazzle camouflage of dark gray, light sea blue, light sea color waves and light gray. The Italians coloring top add-ons was in the form of red and white diagonal stripes so that their own plane was not attacked.
Japanese ships generally retained their pre-war dark gray paint scheme, although some major carriers have changed the color on the dark color of a sea wave. Some painted their aircraft carriers flight deck in a camouflage blind, but it was ineffective.
Soviet vessels were dark gray.
French Navy used a light grey type of camouflage before the war. Free French ships, acting in conjunction with the British, took one of the British schemes. Those who were converted at U.S. shipyards, generally repainted in American measure 22.
After world war II, the universal application of radar made camouflage much less effective.

Camouflage aircraft

the Design of camouflage for aircraft is complicated by the fact that the plane varies significantly, depending on the location of the observer (above or below) and the nature of the background. So many military aircraft are painted light blue below (to match the sky), but in a mottled, darker colors above (to match the ground). Higher speeds of modern aircraft and equipment with powerful radars to protect against missiles, reduced the value of visual camouflage, while increasing the value of electronic camouflage.

Ukrainian Su-25 painted in the color of the earth on top and sky blue bottom.

Use camo not only in army but also in civilian life are not a recent phenomenon. The first military camouflage was used by the French on their trucks and cars. Also after the German invasion of France in 1914, the couturiers of Paris, watching them, turned the abstract patterns of camouflage in women's clothing. Oddly enough, but often the camouflage used for civilians long before the use in military uniforms. Protective camouflage also inspired the creation of the samples used on clothing in England. The first developers of camouflage samples were artists, followers of post - impressionist and Fauve schools of France. Also, experts on the development of camouflage were for the most part, painters like Forain, Camoin, Villon and Marcoussis, sculptors like Boucher and Despiau, and theatre artists. Camouflage schemes of the First world war and between the wars, using subversive samples, often described as "cubism", Picasso, even as they say, argued that "We invented camouflage". Despite this, there is little evidence that the Cubists were attracted for the development of camouflage.
while many hundreds of artists were involved in the development of camouflage during the First world war, the use of "militaristic" forms in civilian life was limited due to the rejection of the militaristic attitudes of the artists of that time, and was only used in the works of military artists. Since the 1960s, however, artists have seized upon camouflage as a means is already far away from military symbolism. The concept of camouflage - concealment and distortion - is also a popular artistic tool.

Artists using camouflage:

• Andy Warhol (camouflage series 1986 )
• Alain Jacques (lots of work in camouflage style. Worked from 1961 to 1970s),
• Ian Hamilton Finlay, Vera von Lehndorff (aka Veruschka) and Holger TRUNC ("Nature, Signs; Animals", "Mimicry - dress Art", all 1970-73)
• Thomas Hirschhorn (Utopia: One World, One war, One army, One Dress, 2005).

Camo civil clothing too, not just adopted. Surplus military camouflage clothing initially found application in the United States and other countries among hunters and those who need a tough, solidly made and inexpensive clothes. There was a demand in the countries, the victors of the Second world war, where it was less negative attitude toward military uniform, and even wearing the prestigious voennoi form. In the United States in the 1960s, military clothing more and more was common (mostly olive gray instead of camouflage template). Interestingly, it has been distributed to anti-war protesters, such as Vietnam veterans Against the war, and then was used increasingly widely as a symbol of political protest. In the years after the Vietnam war, camouflage and military clothing has become very popular among many people, replacing olive-grey military clothes.
"Protest" the symbolism of the civil camouflage decreased during the 1970s, and all bolshee the population began to use this style as a youth. Fashion has since become more and more use camouflage, attracted by its wonderful svoistve: "templated disorder" of camouflage, its symbolism, and its versatility. Among the early designers include: Jean-Charles de Castelbajac (1975-), Roland Chakal (1970), Stephen Sprous (1987-1988), and Franco Moschino (1986). But only in the 1990s that camouflage became a significant and widespread facet of dress from street clothes to high fashion labels especially the use of "fake camo". Producers using camouflage in the 1990s: John Galliano for Christian Dior, Marc Jacobs for Louis Vuitton, Comme des Garcons, Chanel, Tommy Hilfiger, Dolce & Gabbana, Issey Miyake, Armani, Yves Saint Laurent and others.
Some companies have become very closely associated with camouflage style, such as Guru and mhi, Zoo York, Addict, 6876, a Bathing APE, Stone Island, and Girbaud), using authentic military fabric, and also expanding patterns and types, creating their own designs or integrating camouflage patterns with other symbols. The use of original samples in new (often bright) color is also common.
In some countries, such as Barbados, Aruba and other Caribbean countries, there are strict laws that prohibit the wearing of camouflage by neoendorphin, excluding tourists and children.

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Институтский переулок, дом 2/1 Москва