Industry produces for different kinds of travel, climatic zones, seasons, as well as mobile and stationary outdoor recreation.
Tourist to destination can be classified on tents :
- for high altitude
- for the Midlands
- for plain.
In each of these three categories there is a conditional division into "upper", "medium" and "low" tents. This gradation depends on the materials used arcs and awning, technologies, materials and designs.
Alpine tents are divided into forwarding and assault. Tents for high mountains specially designed for extreme conditions: high altitude above sea level, frost, strong wind andD.
Expedition tents - for "Himalayan" style of climbing when the climbing is created a few basic camps. The expedition tent is designed to stand long in one place, so it should be wind-resistant design is tough enough to withstand the pressure of wind and snow.
Assault tent - for the "Alpine" style, in which base camp are not put, and during all climbing tent carry; so the assault the tent should be as light as possible.
Tents for srednegorja combine the quality of forwarding and assault tents: they are more comfortable and therefore heavier assault, but it is easier forwarding.
Flat tents - for a bog, tundra, taiga, for simple hikes, picnics, outs "on the weekend". Usually in the catalogs of the firm indicate the recommended purpose tents (for example, for mountaineering, climbing, caravanning).
Tents for srednegorja and flat tents are divided into:
Camping tent is used by lovers of long outdoor recreation. It is very comfortable when using it for camping sites, children's camps, picnics, weekend, base camps on the approach to the climbing. Tents are equipped by comfortable and adjustable vents and mosquito nets at the inputs. Tents of this type differ the raised comfort. They may be several rooms, Windows, corridors. In most tents you can walk in full growth. In General, small moved apartment. But for the comfort, as you know, you have to pay. And not only money. First of all, the inability to use such tents in other types of hikes because of their greater weight (over 7 kg.).
Universal tents are very comfortable, they do not apply such stringent requirements for wind resistance, but others that are common to all types of quality, such as water resistance, the use of "breathable" fabrics andD. should be at the proper level.
Tents for Hiking and mountain trekking.
the Specificity of these hikes - You have only what you carry behind him. It's not easy, so the extra pounds in the tent You nowhere. In addition, sometimes the wind blows, the rain drips and the snow falls. Because of this requirement to the tents tough enough - the weight per person should not be more than 1.2-1.3 kg for 3-bed and 1-1.1 kg. 4-bed tents. At the same time the construction must be tough enough to withstand the pressure of wind and snow. Well, if equipped with a "skirt" to protect from the snow.
Tents for water hikes.
it is Unlikely that You will go on a trip like this in winter, and hence protection from the snow You most likely do not need. Weight also will not play a significant role, and hence the tent you can choose more conveniently. Wind resistance is also not a critical parameter, so the two classic forms - "hemispheres" and "polubochki" - you can choose last due to the larger useful volume and better habitability.Tents can be divided according to structural features into two main groups:
Single-layer tents is made mostly of waterproof synthetic materials. Their main advantages are lightness and compactness, and the main problem - the condensate accumulating on the walls of the tent. Therefore, when choosing a single-layer tents should be guided, primarily, by the kind and quality of fabric. If the material is waterproof but "breathing" it required an elaborate system of ventilation: mesh openings on all sides of the tent. Currently the most widely many kinds of two-layer tents, as the most functional.
double layer tent consists of two tents: outer - and inner waterproof-lightweight, breathable. Double layer tent in the form are divided into: "Hemispheres" or dome tents "polubochki" Dvuskatnye or tent tents
"Hemispheres" or dome tents
"Hemispheres" and their various modifications are well exposed to the wind (some manufacturers "lose" prototypes in a wind tunnel at wind speeds of 50-60 m/s!), but have lower life volume due to the spherical arch. Classic "hemisphere" is based upon two crossed arches of a skeleton. Based on the classic a huge number of hybrid designs: from lightweight single or double tents all on one arc to a professional "winter" models, the frame of which consists of b and more complicated interwoven arcs. This is necessary to give the tent a more streamlined shape and at the same time to reduce the square "parpadeo" awning, leaning on the frame. Without the instruction to understand with statement like this difficult. The advantages of this type include the following features: good wind resistance; the ability to install without any extensions (to reach the same wind resistance, it is necessary to stretch it), and move without dismantling the structure; the ability to install by one person with certain skills for 5-7 minutes. "Hemisphere" can be put almost on any surface. From disadvantages it is necessary to note the presence of the frame is like nothing weight.
"Polubochki" (they also say "the hangar" or "cylinder") are slightly better habitability, the big useful volume. "Polubochki" there are two or three arches of a skeleton (sometimes more, but it's a lot huge, many-placed tents); it all depends on size, sail area (upwind area). The presence of the third intermediate arch utezheljaet a design, but improves the strength and prevents sagging of the awning. From the title obviously this type represent half a cylinder, stretched to 3-4 arcs that are installed perpendicular to the cylinder axis. Compared to "hemispheres" this type makes for a more comfortable sleeping places (greater specific volume, big ride height of the tent). Often polosochkah a third volume and a good half is a roomy vestibule, making them, in our opinion, is particularly attractive as a base tent or during a long stay in one place. "Flip" is almost never used in high-altitude climbs. But, unfortunately, tents of this type are inferior to hemispheres on the parameters of stability and ease of mounting and suffers long.
Dvuskatnye or tent tents
traditional form still find application in simple camping trips, as well as the mess in BC big expeditions. And although on the basic parameters they are inferior to the above two types, their advantages include simple supporting structures.
Important elements of the successful design solutions are the vestibule, skirts, mosquito nets and other, at first sight, trifles.
the Vestibule serves as a place to store all sorts of things, usually, gaining a lot of, the kitchen in the conditions of bad weather, as well as a launching pad for entering in aggressive environment. We can say unequivocally that to perform all these functions, the tambour should be as large as possible. Vintage outdoor-proverb says: "One tambour good, but two is still better". As a rule, one vestibule is used as a storage chamber, and the second for everything else (see above). To increase the volume of the vestibule is used two steps: the use of a separate arch or a special surface element. When using a separate arc, it is preferable that it was attached not to the ends of major arcs, and crossed with them - it increases the overall rigidity and prevents "unauthorized" folding. Great importance is the location of the platform (end or side). The first option is more attractive. As it facilitates the entry and exit (is not necessary perelazit through peacefully sleeping comrades), more rational use of the area, that is critical on camps. On the other hand, the lateral design of the platform allows to do without additional arc, which reduces the overall weight of the tent, but does not improve its performance, as it turns out, though voluminous, but low and inconvenient.
the Skirt is a strip of cloth around the perimeter of the tent, directly adjacent to the ground. Can be both sewn and removable. Should at least be capable of sliding thereof. The presence of it is imperative when using tents in the mountains, winter or just at low temperatures. This and additional insulation, no nasty draughts from the side and from below; and this is an opportunity to further strengthen the tent, burying the "skirt" of snow or putting on her cut from a dense snow bricks.
alcoholization of an awning and inner tent
Methods of attaching an awning and inner tent to the frame. There are two options. Option one: the frame can be outside awning and attached thereto through pockets, internal attached to the awning. Option two: the frame is inserted in a pocket or hung on hooks (that much more conveniently) the inner tent and the tent top is tensioned. In the first case, the tent is going lighter and with less loss (it is convenient to leave it in the rain or in strong winds: first you put the tent, so the inner tent does not get wet). The disadvantages of this design is that you can't put up a tent without a tent and with strong gusts of wind can easily tear the pockets for the frame tents (there is even the newest firms). In the second case, first you put the inner tent and the tent of the plane rests on the frame - this tent in the rain need to put more quickly. On some tents with this system fastening of the frame may be a slight software upgrade that eliminates this disadvantage. But at dry and warm weather can do without a tent On the elements fastening the tent to the frame. Here there is a complete pluralism among manufacturers, it is still possible to allocate such basic currents:
- hooks - allows you to quickly and easily attach tent to the frame, but relatively fragile;
- the strings are cheap, reliable and cheerful, but for a long time;
- Velcro - fast, but unreliable;
- pockets - reinforced concrete but not very convenient during installation;
- lacing - not tested
Very important when an invasion of buzzing bloodsuckers. Typically, the grid must be duplicate inputs.
a prerequisite to assign the tents to the category of "good" and especially "great" -the presence of well-designed ventilation system. On some foreign models can access the external vents of the inner tent. Through the ventilation holes in the tent should not get the snow or rain. It is better if ventilation can be opened or closed, not getting out of tent. must be equipped with additional wind delays, and their places prishiva to the awning needs to be strengthened by overlays.
also requires different pleasant things that make life so much easier: plenty of pockets, holders for lamps and pendant burners, a grid beneath the ceiling for drying small items.
login Form can be very diverse depending on the destination and preferences of the owner of the tent. The most easy to manufacture and durable tube ("sleeve"), but to use it inconveniently. Previously, most of the makeshift tents were supplied in this entry, but now the tube was left only in winter, "Arctic" models, where there is a risk of lightning and icing is required to provide a minimum clearance fit in the tent man tents and cloth - that flew inside less snow. The majority of tents supplied with entrance zipper with plastic teeth. For winter use with metal you can not buy: the metal will instantly become covered with frost and freeze. Entrance double -fabric inner tent mosquito net is duplicated; if desired, you can close both layers or to use only any one. Many models of tents have two entrances; this is especially true for 3-4 local tents.
first, we need to estimate how many people will live in a tent. Secondly, the size of the internal is also worth considering, in particular to persons of high growth. Be able to stretch out in the tent in full growth? Because proper rest is also necessary. How convenient you can sit in the tent? To ride out the vagaries of nature better still, not in quite a contorted position. Also pay attention to the dimensions of the vestibule-the shelter of your shoes and backpacks. It needs to be capacious enough even for shoes and utensils of all living in a tent.
first of all, the required lightness, strength and frame must not deform under load. These requirements make a good match with rack of various aluminum alloys. And is often used fiberglass or plastic, but they are less durable.
For making arcs of frames apply the following known materials:
- duralumin brand D16T: easy, cheap;
- zinc aluminum alloy B95 brand: D16T better, but more expensive;
- anodized aluminum alloy type 7075 T6 Easton, 7001 T6;
- different types of glass fibers: lightweight, durable material having no residual deformation, but the cold is relatively fragile;
- steel frames with high strength and elasticity, but also more weight, which narrows the range of applications.
currently most of the manufacturers use either plastic racks, or tubes made from aluminum alloys. Plastic racks used in cheap "beach" models, they are less durable and maintainable. It is important to note, that in high mountains of plastic for 2-3 seasons decomposes under the action of a rigid ultraviolet and becomes very brittle. Aluminum frames are much more durable. The alloy is selected so that after removal of the load does not remain deformed. Properly selected manufacturer of metal and after 5 years of intensive work does not take the form of the arc tubes remain absolutely straight and elastic. There is such simple test: collected empty tent should be lifted above the ground for one arch - and the form should be maintained without any deformations. This is an important indicator of the strength and elasticity of the frame (and ease of tent, of course). For ease of Assembly, all parts of the same arc strung on elastic band; greatly simplified the process of setting up tents, so less chance of losing any part of the frame.
Skeletons are internal and external, that is, under the awning or outside of it. In strong wind it is more convenient to pitch a tent with an external skeleton. It is arranged so: on sides of tent sewn special gum, they are thrown through the arc of the frame in one quick movement and fixed on a hook on the same side. Tents for Midlands - on metal or plastic, tents for plain - mostly on plastic skeletons.
Foreign firms use for metal frames or American Easton, or other djuraljuminivye alloys. Russian manufacturers, as a rule, use duralumin D16T. Since Easton - easier and better with the same design and fabric Easton will cost 1.5-2 times more expensive than a tent on the D16T. Plastic frames are GRP (fiberglass), carbon fiber, Kevlar and so on D. Good plastic frames are determined not only by the material used (usually a carbon fiber or Kevlar), and high manufacturing techniques with spatial orientation and stress fibers. Fiberglass features a low cost, absence of residual deformation, but it's almost twice heavier than aluminium alloy, not frost resistant, has a low strength. These properties are sufficient for light hikes. Lightweight plastic frames (CFRP or Kevlar) are characterized by high manufacturing techniques with spatial orientation and stress fibers, therefore, the cost of such skeletons above metal.
it Should just specify that frame are divided into two-layer (awning + inner tent) and single layer. The material of the tent single layer tent should meet the following requirements: the water resistance combined with breathability (necessary to prevent condensation of moisture on the inner surface of the tent). As a rule, such quality have membranous tissue and la Gore-Tex. Similar designs win under weight characteristics, but the high cost of membrane fabrics increase the cost of tents up to an indecent level.
For double-layer tents, everything is easier: the tent should not leak, to be strong and light, and the space between it and the inner tent (at least two inches) is used to drain the condensate inevitably formed during respiration. These requirements are more or less satisfy such materials as POLYESTER RIPSTOP, NYLON TAFFETA, silicone (polymer material coated with a layer of silicone). As the awning is not a full product, and is sewn from individual parts, seams, glue, otherwise their resistance will end. When choosing make sure that the awning is not in contact with the inner cloth. Omission of this moment threatened unpleasant consequences - in this place the moisture will get.
Main category under which primarily judged on the quality of the tent is the height of a column of water, which he guaranteed to withstand. Very good are the indicators close to 10 meters. Of course, at this depth try not to put, but serious water drop, who arrived from the heavens with great speed flops on the fabric and presses very strongly. For high-quality sealing seams of an awning glued the same ribbon, Containers, and all sorts of stretching that secure the awning to the ground, must not with a strong tension to form the growing holes.
Stitches is the place where water starts to drip in the first place. The seams on the tent or glued, or boil. Sizing is used on cheaper materials ("silver"). The last time a company used the technology of 'Cara" - a special tape machine welds the seam waterproof tape (of a material similar in properties to the material of an awning). The fusion is more durable than gluing. In any case, it is advisable to get an agent for gluing the seams, and occasionally to further process them. with not glued seams automatically falls under the category of lower or, oddly enough, on the contrary, the most professional. For example, any superheaped up of tent stitches can be not glued, just because the tent will have to stand above the zone of rain - in just the sizing is not necessary. There is another approach to the treatment of the seams, which is quite rare: "reinforced seams". Reinforced seam is a seam placed him in the sling. With the right ratio of stretch webbing and fabric tent with reinforced seams good stretches, and the seam is not stretched, the hole misses the water. To the inner tent does not unravel at the seams (and nylon have such an undesirable property), the stitching is specially treated, and in the end, looks like the side seam of the jeans brand Levi's. Strength is achieved by the fact that in fact four layers of material are joined with double stitching.
the Basic requirements are as follows: the fabric needs to breathe (for the purposes of ventilation) to be lightweight and durable. Mainly use RIPSTOP NYLON (reinforced nylon), NYLON TAFFETA (not to be confused with Nylon Taffeta Silver), POLYCOTTON, COTTON They are strong enough, very light, good air permeability and water vapor that condenses on the inner surface of the outer cover and drips to the ground.
This is the basis. It is in the most rigid mode of operation, in fact tent to have to put on sharp rocks, ice, snow, water, sand... If the bottom is not wet, and sleeping bag and other things have remained dry, and this, in turn, comfort. Absolute water-resistance possessed by the tissues, if they can withstand getting wet without the water pressure of 3,000 mm, which is two times higher than DIN standard for waterproof fabrics, which gives, in addition, the heat resistance and flame retardancy, while maintaining flexibility. Use POLYESTER RIPSTOP, NYLON TAFFETA 6000, MODEN HEAVY NYLON TAFFETA 8000 8000 PU, NYLON OXFORD, POLYOXFORD, 210Т RIPSTOP NYLON. Aluminized Polyester Ripstop (without polyurethane) has parameters of water resistance is significantly lower (1500-2000 mm). Polyurethane-treated Nylon Taffeta can withstand the pressure from 1000 to 1500 mm. Also use waterproof reinforced polyethylene, but it has a greater specific gravity and therefore used in camping models. Equity and corner seams definitely sealed with a special tape Packaging. Water in the tent so the bottom gets only if its level rises above the level of the bottom trough. The bottom of cheaper options of tents made of reinforced polyethylene, which by itself does not get wet. If well and regularly glue seams this tent will be a good idea to hold water. Lifetime plastic bottom will still be much less.
SOME DESIGN FEATURES ALPINE ASSAULT TENTS.
1. You need to pay attention on lightning. Some of them can not stand extreme overloads type hurricane of wind and snow. Well proved zipper No. 5 - width of joints 5 mm. On good tents on the dogs of the mysterious YKK zippers written. Zipper this stamp is not satisfactory.
2. Inside the tubes should be skipped gum, which frame, posted in the free state, is going independently, you will agree, quite convenient on a shelf- not to ensure that any item is not gone forever in a deep abyss.
3. The system stropochek and hooks unlike other suspension systems of internal you can work in down mittens. By the way, than not another test: ask down mittens in the store (or put on two pairs of ordinary construction, or at worst just hand wrap a piece of cloth) and try to put up a tent, You are going to buy...
4. Smooth seam (Smooth seam) - the idea itself is simple and suggests itself. Remember the children's joke - "Why so smoothly, and so no?"when one child spends on the face of the other first downwards and then upwards, brushing the chin, nose, eyebrows etc... And here, in compliance with this rule, all seams smoothed in the direction of the water flow and drops of rain, turning into streams and streams without encountering on its way any obstacles falling to the ground, allowing you to get a decent impermeability even without gluing the seams. So easy to understand the idea turns out to be quite difficult in practice because of technological difficulties. And is not realized by any producer. So worth a look - whether it's a rule on that tent You are using or going to buy
5. or skirt width of 15 to 25 cm falls to the ground or snow and drains water from the bottom. Plus bars the way cold air into the inner tent. Can be enhanced ribbon with eyelets in the corners for the pegs
6. Waterproof bottom is the bottom. Immediately solved some problems with the choice of location. You can even put the tent in a puddle. Especially at night and if you're very tired. A waterproof tent is a waterproof tent. It will not occur in a light rain, and strong in the slashing rain.I must say that the impermeability of the tissues of the awning and the bottom is not an abstract concept ,but has its own units of measurement-mm of water column\square meter of fabric. That is what height in mm of water column will maintain a square meter of cloth not soaking through. For example, resting your knee on the wet snow ,You create pressure on the material of the pants 10,000 mm V.article\squareM. The tent should withstand at least 3000 mm.V.article\squarem and the bottom is in 2 times more. Self-respecting manufacturers give similar characteristics.
7. Weight this type should not exceed 1.1 kg per person. The more capacity, the less weight per person.