Tent is your mobile home on a hike. A properly chosen tent will protect from the weather will allow you to relax and not to struggle with the elements, shelter in heat and cold. Uncomfortable, windswept, the tent can turn your outdoors into a nightmare. Especially in places remote from centers of civilization, where few feel at home. In addition, a bad camping equipment is a source of considerable danger. What considerations should be taken when choosing a tent?
To begin to understand what you need and what you can expect. You should first understand the existing design, then evaluate their own needs and opportunities. You'll need to realistically assess the conditions in which you intend to use the tent. Buying a tent that is designed for professional climbers, so you can use it for a family trip, you are likely to spend considerably more money than is required to estimate all the benefits of its acquisitions will not be able.
you Need to determine what you can afford. Note that the most expensive tent is not necessarily the best. At the same time it is not necessary to pursue cheapness at the expense of quality. Expensive imported tents, this item. Don't want anyone to create ads, but if you see a tent, one in one is similar to the construction of domestic producers, but emphasized elegant, stylish, and at the same time solid, no weird "bells and whistles", at a price of $ 400, maybe 350 is likely that you have a thing worthy. If money allows - will be satisfied.
Weight is an important criterion when choosing tents. The tent, which weighs a kilo less than other equivalent model will allow us to take extra pounds products. But the tent is made from lightweight and durable material at the same time is likely to be costly.
the Volume is a subjective thing. People have different perceptions of space, and the tent that one seems quite spacious, others can cause claustrophobic. In addition, in the vicinity of a pair of naughty children easy to buy chronic insomnia. Think about why you need a tent: it's one thing to go on a long hike, where for miles not a soul, and quite another to live a hundred meters from the cottage of a friend.
We recommend to visit at least 2 or 3 tourist shop. On each of them you will have to spend from 5 to 40 minutes, depending on the number of proposed models. Before you go shopping, you can study the catalogue of any firm. In addition, many tourist shops have web-sites.
Types of tents
for its intended purpose can be classified as:
- for high altitude (forwarding and assault).
- for mountains and plains (universal, for Hiking and mountain hikes, water hikes).
- camping (family recreation).
Highland are divided into forwarding and assault. These tents are specially designed for extreme conditions: high altitude, low temperature, strong wind andD.
Expedition tents - for the "Himalayan" style of the ascent when the ascent is created several base camps. Forwarding designed to a long stand at one place, so it should be wind-resistant design is tough enough to withstand the pressure of wind and snow.
Assault tents - for the "Alpine" style, in which base camp are not put, and during all climbing tent carry; so must be as light as possible.
for the Midlands and plains are divided into universal, for Hiking and mountain hikes, water hikes. Tents for srednegorja combine quality forwarding and assault tents: they are more comfortable and therefore heavier assault, but it is easier forwarding.
Plain - for simple hikes, picnics, trips "for the weekend".
Universal have a higher level of comfort, they do not apply such stringent requirements for wind resistance, but others that are common to all types of quality, such as water resistance, the use of "breathable" fabrics andD. should be at the proper level.
Tents for Hiking and mountain trekking. The specificity of these hikes - you have only what you carry behind him. It's not easy, so the extra pounds in the tent to anything. In addition, sometimes the wind blows, the rain drips and the snow falls. Because of this requirement to the tents tough enough - the weight per person should not be more than 1.2-1.3 kg for 3-bed and 1-1,1 kg for 4-person tents. At the same time the construction should be durable enough to withstand the pressure of wind and snow. Well, if equipped with a "skirt" to protect from the snow.
Tents for water hikes - it is unlikely that you will go on a trip like this in winter, and hence protection from the snow you most likely do not need. Weight also will not play a significant role, and hence the tent you can choose more convenient. Wind resistance is also not a critical parameter, so the two classic forms - "hemispheres" and "polubochki" - you can choose last due to the larger useful volume and better habitability.
- used by lovers of long outdoor recreation. They are very convenient for camping sites, children's camps, picnics, weekend, base camps on the approach to the climbing. Tents are equipped by comfortable and adjustable vents and mosquito nets at the inputs. Tents of this type differ the raised comfort. They may be several rooms, Windows, corridors. In most tents you can walk in full growth. In General, small moved apartment. But for the comfort, as you know, you have to pay. First of all, the inability to use such tents in other types of campaigns due to their heavy weight (over 7 kg).
Tents on constructional features can be divided into two main groups:
Single layer are made mostly of waterproof synthetic materials. Their main advantages are lightness and compactness, and the main problem – the condensate accumulating on the walls of the tent. Therefore, when choosing a single-layer tents should be guided, primarily, by the kind and quality of fabric. If the material is waterproof but "breathing" it required an elaborate system of ventilation: mesh openings on all sides of the tent.
the Most widespread currently received numerous types of two-layer tents, as the most functional. Double-layer consists of two tents: inner – lightweight, breathable (actually, tent) and exterior – waterproof (tent).
double layer tent form are divided into:
- the Tent-"hemispheres";
- the Tent-"polubochki";
- Dvuskatnye or tent tents.
"Hemispheres" or dome tents
"Hemispheres" and their various modifications are well exposed to the wind (some manufacturers "lose" prototypes in a wind tunnel at wind speeds of 50-60 m/s!), but have lower life volume due to the spherical arch. Classic "hemisphere" is based upon two crossed arches of a skeleton. Based on the classic a huge number of hybrid designs: from lightweight single or double tents all on one arc to a professional "winter" models, the frame of which consists of 6 and more complicated interwoven arcs. This is necessary to give the tent a more streamlined shape and at the same time to reduce the square "parpadeo" awning, leaning on the frame. Without the instruction to understand with statement like this difficult. The advantages of this type include the following features: good wind resistance; the ability to install without any extensions (to reach the same wind resistance, it is necessary to stretch it), and move without dismantling the structure; the ability to install by one person with certain skills for 5-7 minutes. "Hemisphere" can be put almost on any surface. From disadvantages it is necessary to note the presence of the frame – this is after all weight.
"Polubochki" (they also say "the hangar" or "cylinder") are slightly better habitability, the big useful volume. "Polubochki" there are two or three arches of a skeleton (sometimes more, but it is the destiny of a huge, multi-bed tents). The presence of the third intermediate arch design weight, but increases durability and prevents sagging of the awning. From the title obviously this type represent half a cylinder, stretched on the arcs that are installed parallel to each other. Compared to "hemispheres" this type makes for a more comfortable sleeping space (more habitability, more the height of the tent). Often polosochkah a third volume and a good half is a roomy vestibule, which makes them particularly attractive as a base tent or during a long stay in one place. "Flip" is almost never used in high-altitude climbs. Unfortunately, tents of this type are inferior to "hemispheres" in the parameters of stability and ease of mounting and suffers long.
Dvuskatnye or tent tents
traditional form still find application in simple camping trips, as well as the mess in BC big expeditions. And, although, on the basic parameters they are inferior to the above two types, their advantages include simple supporting structures and, as a rule, the possibility of installation without the frame.
Important items handy are the vestibule, skirts, mosquito nets and other, at first sight, trifles.
the Vestibule serves as a place to store all sorts of things, a kitchen in conditions of bad weather, as well as the grounds for their release into the environment. We can say unequivocally that to perform all these functions, the vestibule should be possible, as much as possible. If there are two lobbies, one vestibule is used as a storage chamber, and the second for everything else.
To increase the volume of the vestibule is used two designs: the use of a separate arch or a special surface element console.
Great importance is the location of the vestibule (end or side). The first option is more attractive because it facilitates the entry and exit (is not necessary perelazit through sleeping comrades), more rational use of the area, that is critical on camps. On the other hand, the lateral design of the platform allows to do without additional arc, which reduces the overall weight of the tent, it does not improve the characteristics of the vestibule, as it turns out, though voluminous, but low and less convenient.
"Skirt" is a strip of cloth around the perimeter of the tent, directly adjacent to the ground. The presence of highly desirable when using tents in the mountains, winter or just at low temperatures. This and additional insulation, draught-free side and bottom; and this is an opportunity to further strengthen the tent, burying the "skirt" of snow or putting on her cut from a dense snow bricks.
However, be aware that wind and powder skirt increase the condensation. Therefore, for simpler conditions of the campaign enough is securely fastened to the frame and stretched to the ground. This design has good ventilation and has been successfully used by all manufacturers.
Very important when an invasion of buzzing bloodsuckers. Typically, the grid duplicate the inputs.
Good ventilation is a must in any tent and best of all, when two ventilation Windows located at the top opposite each other.
also requires different pleasant things that make life so much easier: plenty of pockets, attachment for hanging lights, ceiling pocket for small items.
alcoholization of an awning and inner tent
There are two ways of fastening of an awning and inner tent to the frame. Option one: the frame is mounted on the outside of the awning and is fastened thereto through the pockets, the inner tent is, in turn, suspended to the tent. Option two: the frame is inserted in pockets or hung on hooks (that much more conveniently) the inner tent and the tent top is tensioned. In the first case going lighter and with less loss (it is convenient to put under the rain: first you put the tent, so the inner tent does not get wet).
the Disadvantages of this design is that you can't put up a tent without a tent and with strong gusts of wind can easily tear the pockets for the frame. In the second case, first put the inner tent, and plane based on the frame – this tent in the rain need to put more quickly. But at dry and warm weather can do without a tent.
Regarding the mounting of the tent to the frame using such basic methods:
hooks – allows you to quickly and easily attach tent to the frame, but relatively fragile;
the strings are cheap and reliable, but for a long time;
Velcro – fast, but unreliable;
pockets – securely but not very convenient for assembling.
the strings are cheap and reliable, but for a long time;
Velcro – fast, but unreliable;
pockets – securely but not very convenient for assembling.
the Entrance to the tent
login Form can be very diverse – it depends on the design and purpose of the tent. The most easy to manufacture and durable tube ("sleeve"), but to use it inconveniently. Previously, most of the makeshift tents were supplied in this entry, but now the tube remained only winter models, where there is a risk of lightning and icing is required to provide a minimum clearance fit between the person and the tent cloth – inside flew less snow.
most of the tents is supplied with an entrance zipper. Entrance double – cloth interior duplicated mosquito net; if desired, you can close both layers or to use only any one. Many models of tents have two entrances, this is especially true for 3-4 local tents.
the Main measured parameter is the width of the bottom of the inner tent. One person would need 50 cm, plus between extreme man and the wall should remain 5 - 10 cm. That is, double should have width 110-120 cm, triple – 160-170 and so on. Also, you need to consider the length of the bottom and the height of the inner tent, especially for people of high growth. How convenient you can sit in the tent? You can lie down in full length? For a good rest is also necessary. Also pay attention to the dimensions of the vestibule – the shelter of your shoes and backpacks. It needs to be capacious enough even for shoes and utensils.
depending on the purpose, structure tents using different materials and technologies. These major components determine the functional properties and its cost.
For awnings tents are fabric based on polyamide, polyester and sometimes blended fabrics (cotton + polyamide). Nylon, Nylon, NylonTaffeta – woven fabrics of polyamide fibers, and Polyester, PolyTaffeta, Polyester – polyester. Polyamide fibers have high strength, lightness, low water absorption, resistance to abrasion and low cost. The disadvantages of these fabrics include high tensile strength when wet and low resistance to UV (polyamide fibers have a feature under the action of ultraviolet can lose up to 40% of strength per year). Polyester fibers have all the positive properties of polyamide fibers mentioned above, and are deprived of their main drawbacks. Polyester fibers virtually do not stretch when wet, are characterized by high resistance to UV, as well as higher strength than polyamide fibers, but there is a price fabric of polyester fibers is considerably more expensive.
Thus, it is preferable with an awning from polyester fabrics. It is more expensive, but the durability and quality of fabric are worth it.
Also in the descriptions of tissues are found indicate 175T – 250T is the so – called "tack" cloth: the total number of threads per square inch in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The bigger the number, the more dense the fabric, but greatly increases its weight. Also common designation RipStop, which indicates the use of a special weave in which the fabric reinforce the use of thicker and stronger strands. This thread forms on the surface of the fabric pattern of squares, rectangles or rhombuses, and such weaving allows for minimal weight to create a fabric with high strength and resistance to tearing. For awning the best is Tex 190Т – 210Тс weaving RipStop. However, if you are doing high-altitude mountain climbing or traveling in extreme weather conditions, the best choice for you will become more durable fabric until Tex 420Т.
water-Resistant awning, measured in millimeters of water column, a very important indicator. The awning fabric with the index from 2500 mm and above, will resist almost any rain. It is important that the specified in the characteristics of the tents of the value of water resistance is accurate. The water resistance of 2500 mm is achieved by using a double application of polyurethane impregnation, 4000 mm - with triple coating and so on. Polyurethane impregnation tents applied on the inner side of the tent, a special technology that it does not crumble and crack. The question arises: a need for such a high resistance? It's very simple: water droplet with a certain weight falling from a great height, has substantial kinetic energy and when it hit the awning can simply "punch" the material with low resistance. The second reason is the material will eventually wear out and over time begins to flow. Accordingly, the more water resistant a tent is, the longer will be the tent.
Internal not exposed to rain and almost not influenced by the UV light, but takes on a considerable load. In addition, the inner tent should be breathable (not too thick) and lightweight. Therefore, this part of the tent can be made of thin nylon or polyester, mixed fabrics containing cotton.
fabric Colour interior should be bright and cheerful, the mood inside was upbeat and optimistic :)
Mosquito nets in the inner tent should be sufficiently small so as not to miss the smallest midges.
the Bottom should be firm, dense and waterproof. The edges of the bottom should be bent up to the junction with the "walls" was elevated above the surface of the earth. The bottom can be made of fabric or glass-reinforced polypropylene – this material is a bit heavy and requires some care when you install the tent on the rocks, but it is considerably cheaper than all the other variants of execution of the tent bottom.
From the tissues used for DNA Polyester RipStop, Nylon Taffeta, Nylon Oxford, Polyoxford, Ripstop Nylon with a density of not less than 210Т with conformal coating 2000 and above.
the Frame can be made of fiberglass or aluminum. Fibreglass (Fiberglass) is distinguished by the absence of residual deformation, low price, but it's almost twice heavier than aluminium, not frost resistant, has a low strength (afraid of strong shocks, resulting in cracks along and breaks). The metal frame is lighter, stronger, more elastic. This frame is under the influence of the wind may bend but will not break.
These differences and define the scope of application of various frameworks: for sports tourism and extreme conditions - aluminum; for outdoor recreation, camping, cheap tents - fiberglass.
Also in the manufacture of racks used tent Durapol - a composite material based on polyester, for strength and flexibility than ordinary fiberglass and has a smaller permanent deformation and less weight. Usually use a coating of Durawrap, which amplifies the arc fiberglass, giving it great durability, firmness and strength.
rules of camping
For a tent, you should find a dry, easily ventilated, flat place. Be aware that dense trees do not allow the tent well ventilated and dry, and the tent, set under outdoor direct sunlight will get very hot during the day. In case of rain, should not be in a puddle or being swept away by the stream, rushing at the slope.
On earth there should not be mounds, bumps, protruding tree roots, cones. It is undesirable to mount the tent to the tall grass. It is not recommended to set the tent next to the anthills, near the fire.
Properly install the tent will help the scheme. It is necessary to strictly follow the instructions and observe the sequence of works. Not to worry with the installation in the dark or in the rain, better to deal with the design of the house.
to Stretch the surface needs without distortions, uniformly by all the stretch marks, making sure that the tent double layer tent is not in contact with the inner layer. This achieves the main effect: moisture on stretched awning rolls down without coming into contact with the inner layer of the tent.
If you assume that will melt the snow or rain, you need around to dig a ditch for water drainage.
the Pegs should be sticking in the ground at an angle of approximately forty-five degree, three quarter length, otherwise they will warp or jump out of the tension.
the Care of the tent
What conditions must be fulfilled in order to serve you for as long as possible?
the Main thing is to keep it dry. If, for example, during the campaign you have no opportunity to dry the tent, be sure to make it back home. The tent should be deployed, to hang on the rope and hold it until it completely dries. Only after that the tent can be rolled up and stored for a long period of time.
Many owners of the tents I am interested, can I return the tent waterproof. Indeed, it is possible. However, in this case, there are some nuances. Usually used for this particular impregnating materials. This allows the awning to last for some time, but to solve the problem this way. Additionally, such impregnation is quite expensive.
To extend the life of tents, we should not forget about common safety measures that are important in the campaign. For example, should not be located too close to the fire. After all, even accidentally fallen to the surface of an awning spark can damage the material, to burn a hole. Inside the tents is not necessary to light a Primus stove. Even if nothing bad happens, he'll leave traces of smoke on the inner surface. Be careful in handling hot objects. Hot pot, touching the wall of the tent, it is able to make a hole in it.
With proper maintenance is on average 5-7 years.