The history of camouflage

The history of camouflage

1) There will not be considered a camouflage technique (because the subject is so vast).

2) will Not be considered kinds of camouflage snipers (T.K. it is too individually – and also immensely).

The history of the development of camouflage you want to track from the late 19th-early 20th century.

The entire 19th century the army participated in major battles: Napoleonic wars, War in Europe, the Crimean war, the Russo-Turkish war, colonial war...

Battles mainly occurred large military units. Accordingly, in the thick of battle to instantly identify someone near you (friend or foe) – helped vivid shape. Also an important role in the form of playing traditions units: the color of the uniform (specified when creating units), hats, gear. Soldiers of the 19th century had to lug a bunch of equipment associated with the imperfection of weapons.

In the late 19th century in the armies of the world actively begin to infiltrate rifles that use a one-piece cartridge, which leads to a reduction in the volume of equipment, increase range, damage (due to the technological improvement of weapons), and thus increases the maneuverability of troops and the distance the defeat of the enemy soldier.

The world's first has been applied camouflage
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
color "khaki" during the Boer war (1899-1902 gg) – the war for the independence of the Transvaal (Republic of Orange) of England. The British, who started this war in their standard uniforms of red color carried on the first stage of the war a very large lossK. borax (the inhabitants of the Transvaal), skillfully using the terrain, literally merged with the earth's surface and caused the enemy great damage, deftly aiming from hiding perfectly eminent soldiers.

In England urgently take measures and army dressed in "khaki" - the first solid form of the marsh color. (however, it should be noted that officers of the British still suffered losses, because of the tradition of officers wearing white scarves around their necks).

Ended the Anglo-Boer war, the leading powers of the world (including Russia), immediately imposed a one-color type outfit.

In fact during the Russo-Japanese, the 1st world war much progress in changing the form of clothing was not soK. though the army and become invisible, but the tactics of the battle at its core remains the old (large-scale battles military units, which did not take into account the individual masking of a soldier). "Some variants of camouflage - hand coloring parts of shapes, natiranie linen andD. - a few cases taken by individual soldiers and commanders, in order to protect the personnel".

First World war gave impetus to the development of weapons (self-loading rifles, submachine guns, light machine guns, submachine guns). Weapons become more lethal – and then there is the question, and how to protect the soldier? (By the way he appears for the first time in Germany and Italy).

The first camo
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
began to be used already in 1931 the separate parts of the 3rd Reich. He looked something like this – equal parts (light brown (almost beige), light green and dark brown, all over camouflage as if "it rained" is dark green). Several types of camouflage are the basis of multi-variant tissue (light green, dull red, brown) coated with small (and not 2-3 spots of other colors). I can only say that this camo was used mainly by special units of Nazi Germany – paratroopers, mountain hunters, SS,D. Some versions of the camouflage were made for desert terrain. "By the end of the 2nd world war, Germany was the leader in the development and production of camouflage... at the end of 44 years in the Wehrmacht, different units were used more than 30 rascvetok... some of which later passed to the Soviet Army, for example, "birch". A large number of developed war thunder is still used and modernized".

Having entered the war with Britain also quickly faced with the problem of masking of personnel. The first British camo
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
was the form also of three colors (light brown, dark green, dark brown). Parts of the paint were large, dark-brown paint "as if" "smeared with a brush", also the spots are superimposed on each other – to make it look even more dark spots the natural color. Used this camo again not all parts, and SAS.

The USSR is in this sense clearly losing to other countries. No matter how long we watched movies, read books and moreD. one thing is clear: the smocks were mostly of scouts and spies who were sent into enemy territory. It is known that camouflage
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
was two-tone (light and dark green –base), was spots or broken parts. Name ("BLOB").

America had camouflage – a light green base and dark green, light and dark brown spots. Camouflage
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Camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
was used by Marine Corps in the Pacific.

Italy created its first camouflage
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
in 1929 (It consisted of the same three colors - light brown (almost beige), light green and dark brown, but had smoother contours than German).

Switzerland made its own equivalent of the German camouflage (almost no different).

In Sweden was created its own type of camouflage cloth (dark green, dark brown, light brown), but due to the low participation of Sweden in the war – this camouflage
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
it is almost unknown.

Other countries that participated in the 2nd world war did not use camouflage or use camouflage
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
"older brothers".

It is worth noting winter camouflage – all armies it was a cloak or camouflage robe/bodysuit, dressed to the main form.

End of the second world war the victory of the USSR and allies. Started the Cold war, and with it came local conflicts in all parts of the world.

The Korean war was essentially an echo of the Second world war and the beginning of "cold". South Korea, with the support of America initially won over the North, Communist Korea, to come to the aid of the Chinese and the war took a fierce character. Here was first realized the usefulness of camouflage, but, as always – it was worth the war to subside, as in the countries it was decided not to allocate money for the development of camouflage.

Here it should be noted that all kinds of camouflage with this time is usually divided into several types of masking (depending on location):

- "forest" (mainly Europe, America)

- "Desert" - (North Africa, Central Asia)

- "jungle" (tropic) – (s-e Asia, South America)

"winter" - winter war

- "Bush" (South Africa) – very little camouflage, because of limited areas and countries.

From here we should start to talk about the countries separately, for the further development of camouflage since the early 60-ies went downright explosive methods.

England (UK).

Since the early 60's began to develop their own camouflage:

The first variant (DPM P60) was as follows: light green (base), dark green, dark brown (spot, "dabs"), black smooth small lines.

The second option (P68 DPM) had virtually the same pattern, but green
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the color was more faded than on the version (DPM P60).

Tropical variant differed only in brighter, more saturated colors, and spots of brown and green reminiscent of palm leaves.

Options Р84 Р94 DPM and DPM – pattern do not differ, and differ only in the increased "density" color – 84 darker than in 68 and 94 – 84 darker. Also there is combined arms P95 – Soldier, other than a light Foundation and approximation to European standards of NATO countries.

Also improved types of tissue.

Separately there is a variant of the "wilderness" - light brown, dark brown, with rare green blotches. The author also saw with my own eyes pink camo in pattern resembled a typical PDM or one of the Italian samples (in addition to the PDM it was closer). Pink camo
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
used for special operations in the desert at sunrise (all the desert is painted pale pink).

Features: PDM is one of good samples of multi figure (actually a figure not changed since 1960-th years). Went through several wars and received a rather flattering assessment from the military. Is used to this day.

Similar camouflage
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camouflage
(FR. camouflage "camouflage") a mottled camouflage coloration used to reduce the visibility of people, weapons, equipment, structures due to the breaking of the silhouette of the product or subject
To learn about Camouflage from the Encyclopedia
use: Holland, Canada – to 90-ies.