Cotton fabric

Cotton fabric

Cotton is a natural fabric of vegetable origin. It is made from the seeds of cotton plants. Cotton is a plant of the Malvaceae family of the genus Gossypium. Cotton is natural fiber in the global textile industry.

The composition of cotton fibres is cellulose (95-96%), the rest is impurities, it is because this ratio has been the Russian name. They're soft, thin, opaque and cream in color.

In Russian technical literature until the second half of the nineteenth century instead of the word "clap" used the term "cotton paper" or "cotton fiber", - preserved to this day in the words: cotton fabric, cotton industry and others. However, it should be known and international name — "Cotton".

The composition and structure of

Cotton fiber is a single plant cell, growing from the peel of the seed. The single fiber thickness is 15-25 microns; depending on the length of the fiber (from 5 to 60 mm) made from yarns classified as short, medium staple and staple and subjected to various processing. The fiber is a hollow tube (which explains the poor thermal conductivity), saitou around its axis (7-10 times per 1 mm). As they Mature fibers grow fat of cellulose, whereby the strength of the fiber increases. The chemical composition consists of 95% cellulose and the rest 5% fat and mineral impurities.


For the first time in the Old World cotton was cultivated 7,000 years ago (5th Millennium B. E.) representatives of the civilization located in the Indus valley. Evidence of cultivation of cotton have been found during archaeological issledovaniyeyami culture, where they found copper beads with preserved cotton yarns[5]. In the period of the Indus civilization, which occupied a huge area in the northwestern part of South Asia, where there are now Eastern Pakistan and northwestern India, cotton has been further proliferation[6]. The production of cotton in the Indus valley was common practice, and some methods that were used in those days to khlopkopryadilnaya and processing, continued to be used until the modern industrialization of India[7]. Between 2000 and 1000 years BC. E.cotton spread almost all over India[8]. For example, it was found during excavations in Halusa, Karnataka (1000 B. E.). The use of textiles made of cotton spread from India to the Mediterranean sea and further[9].

Cotton goods were discovered in a cave near Tehuacan, Mexico, and dated to about 5800 B. E. although the data of Dating is inaccurate due to the decomposition of fibers[10]. Other sources attribute the domestication of cotton in ancient Mexico around 5000-3000 years BC. E.[11].

Cotton was unknown to the Greeks and Arabs before the time of the wars of Alexander the great. A contemporary of Alexander, the ancient Greek traveler Megaspin told Seleucus and the leader about the fact that "...there were trees on which wool grows" (excerpt from "Indica" Megasfera).

In Iran (Persia) history of cotton goes back to the Achaemenid era (V century B. E.). However, sources related to the cultivation of cotton in Iran before the arrival of Islam, came to our days very little. The cultivation of cotton was common in Merv, Ray, and in the region of Farce. In the verses of Persian poets, especially Ferdowsi Shahnameh, one can find many references to cotton ("panbe" in Persian. Marco Polo (XIII century), telling of the major products of Persia, mentions including cotton. Jean Chardin, French traveler of the seventeenth century, who visited the Safavid Persia, has confirmed the existence of extensive cotton plantations[12].

During the Han dynasty the Chinese were growing cotton on the territory of present-day Yunnan province[13].

In Peru, the cultivation of local varieties of cotton Gossypium barbadense (eng. Gossypium barbadense) became the basis for the development of coastal cultures such as the culture of the Norte Chico, Moche, Nazca culture. Cotton was grown in the upper reaches of the rivers, and made of it the network is then shared among residents of coastal fishing villages on the impressive amount of fish. The Spaniards arrived in Mexico and Peru in the early sixteenth century, they found local people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it.

During the end of the Medieval period, cotton became known in Northern Europe as a subject of import, without the slightest idea of how he actually performed, it was known only that it is obtained from plants. Given its similarities to wool, people gave birth to conjecture, though the cotton is obtained from sheep born from plants. John Mandeville, in his records from 1350 asserts as fact the now seemingly ridiculous beliefs: "There (in India), grows the wonderful tree, the branches of which are born small sheep. These branches are so flexible that they are inclined downwards, allowing the sheep to eat when they are hungry" (see also barometz). This belief is entrenched in many European languages the word for "cotton" in German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool". By the end of the sixteenth century cotton was cultivated throughout the warm regions of Asia and America.

Cotton production in India during the British conquest and the founding of British India in the late XVIII — early XIX vecoplan declined. For the most part it was due to aggressive colonialist policies of the British East India company, pursuing its own selfish goals that did the processing and production of cotton products to the local population uncompetitive. India was forced to supply only raw and have to, by introducing special laws, to purchase ready-made textiles in Britain.

The first instrument for cleaning cotton seeds in India was the so-called "churka", which consisted of two rollers, and the upper stationary and the lower rotating with the handle. Seed cotton was fed between the rollers, the roller caught the fiber and pulled it to the other side, and the seeds, which could not pass between the rollers, fell found. During this operation two or three replacement workers could gin no more than 6-8 kg of pure cotton. Therefore, large-scale and cheap production of cotton could not be and speeches.

The history of the fabric

Cotton goods were discovered in a cave in Mexico. It is believed that for the first time the cotton was mentioned 5800 BC. Also during the excavations in the valley of the Indus river in Pakistan were found fragments of cotton fabric and ropes. Archaeologists believe that the age of the discoveries 3000 years BC. However, the first version of the birthplace of cotton India is considered. The Indians regarded the gift of heaven. Also the first mention of the trade in cotton fabrics connected with India.

The second version is based on the fact that the founder of cotton is Egypt. There is even evidence that the Egyptians 2500 years before our era, were made of fabric of very high quality which not inferior in quality these days. In addition, the mummies of Egyptian pharaohs were wrapped in a cotton fabric. In China the cultivation of cotton and manufacture fabrics, started later than in India and Egypt. But in this country, was present as an ornamental flowering plant. Quite a long time, cotton came to Europe by Arab traders in the form of fabrics. About the cotton plant were composed many legends. Still there is a belief that says that if in a dream to see cotton is to luck in business and prosperity.

Processing and dissemination

The first tool in India for cleaning cotton from the seed was "chock". This device consisted of two rollers: the top one was stationary and the bottom was rotating with the handle. The collected untreated and received between the rollers, the roller had seized the cotton and pulled it to the other side. The seeds could not pass between the rollers and fell forward. In such roller day received a maximum 7-8 kg of purified cotton.

In Europe cotton fabrics were first manufactured in England around 1770. It is believed that the first machine for the processing of cotton fiber was invented by a woman, Catherine Littlefield green, but in those days patents women were not allowed to give out, so the production of the first car was registered on the levee Whitney in 1792. This machine has speeded up processes and reduced the price work, day work such a machine would bring 100-150 cleaned fiber.

About the middle of the 16th century Russia was first introduced to this fiber, and in the late 18th century the production of cotton (cotton) fabric, initially only in Central Russia, and in the middle of the 19th century Russia was already on the fifth place in the world for the production of cotton.

More advanced the production of cotton fabrics is owned by the UK, US and France. Currently produced in large amounts, also it includes an interlock, Batiste, poplin, calico, gauze fabric, denim, ticking, pique and many others.

Fabric properties

Cotton fabric is quite durable, comfortable to wear and is heat resistant. Tissue have considerable resistance to repeated stretching and bending, washing and Ironing, in addition, have excellent hygienic properties. Cotton can absorb moisture to about 15 to 20% of its own weight, but not become wet to the touch. Dries very slowly.

almost not warm, it is ideal as a material for summer clothes. Cotton clothes is renowned for abrasion resistance, can be repeatedly subjected to washing, Ironing, bending and stretching. To of cotton fabric to make more warm clothes, the cotton is subjected to varovanie. Cotton fabrics that are not treated in a special way, very much to crumple and shrink when washed. Subjecting the fabric to treatment with a solution of chemicals, the fabric is not as much crumple easily smoothed. To cotton fabric was malousadochnoy, for fabric contraction is carried out on a special finishing machine or process the tissue substances that reduce swelling of the fibers. Cotton burns with yellow flame, this produces grey ash and a smell of burnt paper.

Types of fabric

Cotton fabric is divided into two main types - household and technical. Basically 80% cotton fabrics are domestic species that are suitable for use in making clothing, such as underwear, costume, dress, and fabric for light jackets, summer, spring and autumn coats and raincoats. Also to household types include cotton fabric for sewing curtains, handkerchiefs, towels and bedspreads. Width of cotton fabrics can be 80,90, 140 and 160 cm.

Types of cotton fabric

Currently there are many types of cotton fabrics, every fabric specific application.

  • The bike is fairly dense soft fabric with a dense pile, designed for making quilts, pajamas, shirts and home wear.
  • Velvet is a soft fabric that the front side has a thick pile, is often used in the sewing of Trouser suits, women's dresses, is often used in making curtains.
  • Batiste is a semi – translucent thin fabric of highly twisted yarns is used in sewing of summer dresses and various lingerie.
  • Flannelette is a fabric that has a one-way fleece on the wrong side, is designed for sewing children's clothing and women's dresses.
  • Bufalin is the thin translucent tissue that is used for sewing blouses and women's dresses.
  • Calico is a thick, warm fabric designed for clothing, underwear, bedding, diapers and clothing for babies.
  • Waffle fabric – this fabric is characterized by unusual weave, having good absorbent properties. Used in the production of towels.
Clothing made of natural cotton
  • Corduroy is a thick fabric, which on the face has the scars of a longitudinal form, used in coats, suits, skirts, trousers. Also corduroy is divided into two types: corduroy and velveteen hem.
  • Volt is a fairly thin, silky fabric from which sew blouses.
  • The veil is smooth and transparent fabric, which is used in tailoring of dresses, blouses and scarves.
  • Gas is the fabric, consisting of finely stranded cotton, used in sewing of scarves and handkerchiefs.
  • Garus is coarse and dense fabric with a double sided gasket plain weave, used in sewing dresses.
  • Lace is a fabric with a variety of weave threads, a bit like lace, used in sewing formal evening women dresses, lingerie and blouses. Often lace is used for decorating clothes.
  • The canvas sneakers lace up is a thick fabric with a twill weave, can be of two types: smooth-haired and wire-haired. Is suitable for sewing clothes.
  • Dulemba is a fabric that has a twill weave, used in coats, suits.
  • Damask is a fabric with plain weave, is designed for curtains and upholstery.
  • The Jean is double cloth satin weave, is designed for sewing coarse coat.
  • Denim is a type of denim, wrong side of the white color, the front color. Designed for outdoor jackets, trousers, skirts and coats.
  • The fabric denim is a very durable fabric, which is used in sewing of trousers, skirts, suits, shoes, bags, headwear, and is used in the manufacture of shoes. Very popular at present.
  • The diagonal is dense tissue in an oblique hilum, from which sew jackets, and military uniforms.
  • Cabinet is a fabric with a twill weave, used in sewing clothes.
  • Canifis is a tightly woven fabric used in the tailoring of suits, trousers, skirts.
  • Cignac is a fabric with a printed pattern, is used for sewing of linings of coats, coats and other clothes.
  • Muslin is a thin fabric with a plain weave, used in the sewing of children's clothes and women's dresses.
  • Calico is starched fabric used as a lining.
  • Beautiful – it's a lightweight fabric with the effect of "matasci", used in sewing women's dresses.
  • Cretonne – is a dense fabric with a plain weave, used for upholstery.
  • The eraser is a thin and lightweight fabric with a shiny surface, which produce dresses, shirts, and often used as linings.
  • Madras is a fabric of plain weave, used in sewing summer blouses and women's dresses.
  • Voile is a lightweight and thin fabric is used for sewing blouses, summer dresses and underwear.
  • Gauze is a thin and transparent fabric, which is used in medicine, printing and sewing.
  • Terry cloth is a looped fabric weave having a napped on both sides, used in sewing coats, towels, sheets, sometimes used in upholstery.
  • Moleskin is a thick fabric with a sateen weave, with a smooth surface, used for suits and outerwear.
  • The Nana is a rough fabric for sewing hats.
  • Nancy is a light and thin fabric used in sewing bedding and underwear.
  • Pique is a fabric with a raised longitudinal ridges with geometric designs on the front side, used in sewing curtains, dresses and children's clothing.
  • The fabric is a fabric treated with water repellent, used in sewing raincoats and jackets.
  • Plush is a fabric with a long pile, used for decorative purposes in upholstery.
  • Poplin is a fabric with transverse ribs, which is used in sewing blouses and shirts.
  • REP – a fabric with ridges on the obverse and reverse sides, used in sewing clothing.
  • Satin is a fabric with a glossy face that is used for sewing shirts, women's dresses and children's clothing.
  • Chintz– a plain weave fabric used in the tailoring of shirts, women's and children's clothing. Used for sewing bed linen and baby diapers.
  • Broadcloth is a fabric with pile or without pile, used for coats and suits.
  • Taffeta is a thick fabric made of tightly twisted threads used in the sewing of women's dresses.
  • Tights – is a rather dense fabric with clear pattern, designed in the tailoring of dresses and suits.
  • Tulle is a fabric mesh, designed for sewing curtains.
  • Flannel is a fabric with double-sided fleece, used in sewing pajamas, robes, baby clothes and diapers.
  • CinC is a polished fabric for sewing coats and jackets.
  • Tartan is a fabric with drawings in the cage used for sewing women's, men's and children's clothing

Advantages and disadvantages

As everyone knows, is the most eco-friendly fabric. It is breathable, hypoallergenic, soft to the touch, comfortable to the body, quite warm, absorbs moisture, easily bleached, not electrified. Using special weaves you can get materials of different thickness (kulirka, interlock, etc.), with a NAP or without (footer, mahr, etc.). Sometimes in his composition to add and artificial fibers, e.g.,polyester or lycra.

However, cotton fabrics have significant drawbacks. This includes light creasing, he quickly loses appearance and pretty much to sit down immediately after the first wash, dries slowly. Therefore, the material often collects negative reviews and replaced many high-quality synthetics or articles made of artificial fibres.

Care of clothes

When caring for things made from it, you should follow some rules: be washed at a temperature of 40-60 degrees every time you need to iron the clothes, when washing colored products do not use bleached.

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