The geography of camouflage

It is known that camouflage was a two-tone (light and dark green – base), was spots or broken parts ("BLOB"). America had camouflage – light green base and dark green, light and dark brown spots. Camouflage was used by the Marine Corps in the Pacific. Italy created its first camouflage in 1929 (It consisted of the same three colors - light brown (almost beige), light green and dark brown, but had smoother contours than German). Switzerland did its counterpart German camo (almost no different).Also in Sweden was created by its appearance camouflage fabric (dark green, dark brown, light brown), but due to the low participation of Sweden in the war – this camouflage is almost unknown. Other countries that participated in the 2nd world war are not used camouflage, or used camouflage "elder brothers". It should mark winter camouflage – all armies it was a cloak or camouflage robe/bodysuit, dressed to the main form.

End of the second world war the victory of the USSR and allies. Started the Cold war, and with it came local conflicts in all parts of the world. The Korean war was essentially an echo of the Second world war and the beginning of "cold". South Korea, with the support of America initially won over the North, Communist Korea, to come to the aid of the Chinese, and the war took a fierce character. Here was first realized the usefulness camouflage, but, as always – it was worth the war to subside, as in the countries it was decided not to allocate money for the development camouflage. Here it should be noted that all types of camouflage from this time be divided into several types of masking (depending on terrain):- "forest" (mainly Europe, USA)- "Desert" - (North Africa, Central Asia)- "jungle" (tropic) – (s-e Asia, South America)- "winter" - the winter war - "Bush" (South Africa) – very little camouflage, because of limited areas and countries.
From here we should start to talk about the countries separately, for further development camouflagesince the early 60-ies went downright explosive methods.

England (UK). Since the early 60's began to develop their own camouflage: The first variant (DPM P60) was as follows: light green (base), dark green, dark brown (spot, "dabs"), black smooth small lines. The second option (P68 DPM) had virtually the same pattern, but green was more faded than on the version (DPM P60). Tropical variant differed only in brighter, more saturated colors, and spots of brown and green reminiscent of palm leaves. Options Р84 Р94 DPM and DPM – pattern do not differ, and differ only in the increased "density" color – 84 darker than in 68 and 94 – 84 darker. Also there is combined arms P95 – Soldier, other than a light Foundation and approximation to European standards NATO. Also improved types of tissue. Separately there is a variant of the "wilderness" - light brown, dark brown, with rare green blotches. Pink camouflage is used for special operations in the desert at sunrise (all the desert is painted pale pink). Features: PDM is one of good samples of multi figure (actually a figure not changed since 1960-th years). Went through several wars and received a rather flattering assessment from the military. Is used to this day. Similar camouflage use: Holland, Canada – to 90-ies.

France. Of war of France in Indochina – resulted in the appearance of the first French camouflage with a bright name "Leopard" (the second name – "the Lizard"). Was a light green base with applied "brush strokes" brown and black colors. Pretty well masked personnel, was the three options (first choice for Asia, improved version – with a more "jagged" lines and option for Europe). Was dosestotal 80-ies, after the alteration was released in the 90's a version for tropical countries under the label “F1 Lizard”.In the early 90s there were created two types of camouflage – “Central Europe” and “Deuget”. First, as the name suggests, designed for combat in Central Europe (light brown, dark brown, dark green in equal proportions – overlapping spots, black – small elongated spots). The second action in the desert – three shades of brown – dark, light and almost beige. "Lizard existed officially (as official colour) up to 62 (or 64, the exact date is not) then was introduced S300 olive, but the lizard continued to wear Legionnaires in North. Africa. The index F1 (same as F2, S300, etc.) applies only to the cut, not the colour. The Dag is a "slang" name, the name of the operation Dauget carried out in the framework of the "desert Storm", CCE officially introduced in 94-m to year". Features: France has no special claims for any war where it is sent in the composition of the countries NATO, has its camouflage for the corresponding type of terrain. Lizard has been so successful type camouflage, it is with great pleasure and small changes from country to country, se Asia and South America.

Germany. The history of postwar Germany, divided into East and West Germany – very entertaining. Each country had its camouflage, because we will consider them separately. GDR. Was part of the Warsaw Pact, after the reunification with the Federal Republic of Germany – took her camouflage. The first was a two-tone version of "Amoeba" - which consisted of a light brown base and brown spots on it. Lasted extremely long. The second option is to 67 years – was an attempt to make a "forest" camouflage light brown, dark brown and dark green spots in a "soft" connection. The latter, which lasted until the reunification of Germany was "RAIN" means "rain": base – khaki coated with a touch of brown. Features: not the best option camouflage, K. initially GDR was not able to allocate money to the military industrial complex. However, the Warsaw Pact Nations have long used either a plain green form or the form of GDRs as principal. Rarely anyone could release their camouflage.

West Germany. Germany financed by the United States and countries NATO, actively began to seek their own kind camouflage. As we remember in the 3rd Reich there were 2 main types: - "Broken lines" and "spots". At first, as the main camouflage were chosen "Broken line", which with slight changes were made under all new and new designations: Sumpfmuster, BGS-Splinter, BW-Splinter, BW-Splinter w/Bold Strokes. Changes:- coloration (thicker, lighter) - blur (edge spots became more lubricated). In the mid 50-ies appears "Amoeba" (Amoebatarn) , he was – ameboid spots of brown (dark and light), green and black colors in equal proportions. But the main army camouflage remained the BW-Splinter. In 1985 came to light unique German camo, which still know the army of this country all over the world. Flecktarn. It consists of small spots of black, brown, gray and light green colors. Produced a lot of options: for the tropics, desert, winter, etcD. (with increased color of the corresponding region in the color). For example – in desert brown and green color bleached, and in winter brown and green replaced with white. Exists to this day. Features: One of great luck types camouflage, which turns the silhouette of a man in a set of spots that are not immediately identifiable as a soldier of the enemy, which leads to disastrous consequences. Flectarn in its variations is used: Denmark, China (tibetskiiflectarn), Belgium, Austria (his version).

South African countries South Africa, Rhodesia (isty. Zimbabwe), etc. initially (tK. were under the control of England and other countries) had their own camouflage, but soon, with the granting of independence, widening the partisan movement and the threat of war were forced to create their own camouflage for action in conditions of savannas, Bush. Differed mainly light background, large patches of green or brown and the obligatory "Touch" (under grass).- Rhodesian Selous Scouts

USA. The richest country in the world clearly could afford good camouflage. Attempts to create camouflage lasted till 60-ies sluggish, however, with the entry of America into the war in Vietnam appeared an acute problem of large losses of soldiers in the jungle. Ordinary monochromatic light olive tropical uniforms, of course, is masked, but... alas, not until the end. Was created camouflage ERDL – a prototype of the future Woodland’s. Base – light and dark brown, green ameboid spots, with black lines around camouflage. Version never went into mass production, was used mainly as covers for helmets and as a form for ARVN is "Army Republic of Viet Nam" - the South Vietnamese Army, which fought the Americans.Tiger Stripe – originally appeared in the SAS soldiers who fought in Malay. After became the basis for Filipino camouflage, was a blurry wave "-the strokes" light brown, green and black camouflage in equal proportions. Used parts special U.S. army, to carry out raids deep behind enemy lines, reconnaissance, or sabotage. On the scale of the armies were not applied and not applied. Woodland - "the forest". This camouflage appeared in the early 80-ies of the last century and for a long time became the basis for the emergence camouflage around the world. Was a light brown, dark brown, light green and black components in about equal proportions. Soon in a similar camouflage began to dress of the country, where America had its contingent of troops. The most common camouflage in the world. Based on it created almost all camouflage NATO, some of Asia, South America and Africa. On its basis were made – 2 desert camouflage: 3-and 6-color. Desert – “the desert”.Colour pale green, light and dark brown... the waves overlap each other. Six-color – pale green, light brown, dark brown, beige, black, white. Is the basis of the first 4 colors – wave-like spots, and spots of white surrounded by a black outline. Pretty good camouflage. Still in use today in the U.S. army for parts, not yet totally moved on "MARPAT andMulticam".
Multicam – base: light, dark green, light, dark brown, black, beige. Camouflage is a light green base and ameboid spots the rest of the colors on it. Is used for woodland. Replacing "Woodland'". "Still (unfortunately) a commercial option." MARPAT -DIGITAL camouflage. Created in the early 21st century. Is light brown, red, green, and black color United very interesting way. Looking at the camo, you can assume that you are looking at the computer screen, because all the parts of the camouflage spots are small squares, like pixels on a computer screen. When driving like this camouflage "lubricated" with the surrounding terrain, in a stationary state (if the person Marpat'lies in e, and by it are people – camouflage in vision walking person is also coated). Desert variant – gray, light-brown (base), dark brown, beige.Winter – white base – gray, black, brown."MARAT - he's a Marine Pattern, used as uniforms corps. The army still use BDU Woodland and moves on to ACU PAT, what is Army Combat Unoform Pattern. And ACU is planned to be used as a UNIVERSAL camouflage for both woodland and desert. Oh, and for urban combat course". Also available in digital: ACU PAT. In the development of ACU PAT was taken as a basis MARPAT of black color EXCLUDE, as "absent in the natural environment". So it's not grey with black spots. For digital camouflage the future, apparently. As well digital camouflage are in Canada (under the designation CADPAT – color in General similar to MARPAT, but darker).
The issue of primacy in the development and launch of a series of digital camouflage between the United States and CANADA has been ongoing. Features: In connection with the participation (direct or indirect) of the USA in all armed conflicts on the planet, this country has been developed the most common types of camouflage: Woodland, Desert on the basis of which created the vast majority of tanks in the world. Also it was delivered in NATO countries, Asia, Yu.Of America. Digital camouflage is the next natural step in the development camouflage. USA, the richest country in the world first took a step in that direction.

USSR. The country we were all born, but which no longer exists in the world. The country with the biggest army and a great history. But, she had very limited camouflage. Before the collapse of the USSR in the 91st year of the 20th century the main form was khaki. The camouflage, ghillie suits were used primarily by reconnaissance divisions, paratroopers and other PNS. The main colors of the camouflage was streaked: dark green base with light green "leaves", "spots" etcD. There was camouflage "Amoeba" - for border troops, Naval infantry and Aviation – Dark brown, light brown, black – in the form of ameboid spots of the second and third, surrounded by lines first. After the collapse of the USSR this camouflage was transferred to Ukraine as the primary. Features: Camouflage in the Soviet Union was. But it used a very limited number of units, combined as it was not seen.

Russia. In 1993, the main camouflage was named "oak" ("plane"). Colors: light, dark green and brown. Spot in the form of stylized oak leaves arranged vertically. In the late 90s official camouflage recognizes "birch" ("FLORA" - light brown, dark brown, light and dark green spots arranged horizontally). HOWEVER. As often happens in Russia now in the form of clothing for soldiers reigns mess. As they say "the shape of the number 8 that he had stolen something and wear." Many wears the uniform of 1993. Because our country is full of commercial firms engaged in production camouflage for the special forces fishers, hunters, and soD. In the army (in principle extremely encouraged for soldiers), but allowed for officers to wear a uniform of any color. The special forces involved in the war in Chechnya, counter-terrorism operations in the country (Group "A" Spetsnaz GRU and so onD.) – use ANY type camouflage (as well as any squad in the world). It is known that they wear a "Hill" (produced by "Souzspecodejda"), "Smog" (similar to the PDM, produced by "Alloy"), "Undergrowth" (produced by "NPO special MATERIALS"), the Russian analogue "Tiger stripe"- "Tiger". Also quite possible to see a soldier with stripes "armed forces" in Woodland’s, DPM’s, Flecktarn’s... Features: Himself camouflage can be good coloring, but the cut and shape for a soldier leave much Oh as best.

Also let's not forget that many countries have remained true to the plain olive color camouflage: Austria, Israel, Country Y.Of America. Oh and one more aspect: There are SPECIALIZED camouflage drawings designed for special forces units and their operations in the short portion of the day time and in a particular place. These include: Pink camouflage (desert, early morning),- Alpenflage (camouflage - VERY BRIGHT red, red, black, green) - used in the mountains (Alps) in March - April, when the flowers bloom, Urban camouflage (usually equivalent "Forest", but using gray, black, red (brick), white tones, Black camouflage for operations at night satoki T.D. In conclusion. The story of camouflage is based on the experience of past or ongoing wars. In particular, we can distinguish the following periods:1900-1930-e – solid khaki. 1930-1945 – world war II causes a surge in the emergence of new colors and types camouflage. 1945-1974 – War in s-e Asia cause camouflage the type of "tropic" and universal splash search need for each country camouflage. 1974 – 1990s – the Main camouflage in the world are equivalent "Woodland'a". 1990s – present. Time: Each country found its primary type camouflage, and now it is time for scientists.

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